Innovation for Sustainable Development Reviews


The assessment of the innovation performance in Belarus shows that there is a broad awareness and recognition of the importance of innovation for future growth and competitiveness of Belarus by the authorities. The recommendations, which concern a large number of innovation related issues, have different scope. For example, in order to improve the functioning of the National Innovation System (NIS), the Review recommends a critical assessment of the innovation policy mix in Belarus to compare its coverage with other countries and identify mismatches. It also suggests the clear allocation of intellectual property rights in the innovation process to facilitate the involvement of domestic and foreign investors, and, more generally, to encourage innovation activity and facilitate industry-science linkages and collaboration in the innovation process.

The assessment of the innovation performance shows that Kazakhstan embraced international cooperation to gain access to new knowledge, identify good policy practices and develop contacts that should result in improved innovation performance. To strengthen the National Innovation System (NIS), the Review recommends further efforts to strengthen the connectivity between various components of the NIS through horizontal instruments that facilitate linkages, including public support to coordination and risk-sharing mechanisms. It also suggests a number of initiatives to improve the coherence of innovation policies, developing the possibilities opened by recent legal changes. It proposes different initiatives to foster knowledge generation and transfer, and an industry-science linkages (ISL) mapping and evaluation exercise to identify bottlenecks and barriers.

The assessment of the innovation performance in Ukraine shows that the importance of innovation is recognized in many legal and policy documents, including at the highest level. However, a holistic consideration of the National Innovation System (NIS), its various components and the relations between them, remains lacking. The recommendations include an integrated consideration of the various components of the NIS, to identify weak elements and emphasize linkages between different subsystems as important policy targets. As part of coordinated action to improve the framework conditions for innovation, the authorities should strengthen their efforts to encourage the development of an innovation culture, in particular through awareness, dissemination and communication initiatives.

Armenia has made considerable progress in the establishment of an National Innovation System (NIS). However, within this understanding of innovation, a narrow interpretation of innovation prevails, focusing on frontier (cutting-edge) technological innovation. The Review recommends a broader understanding of innovation, to include non-technological aspects. It also suggests that the education system requires reforms that ensure the relevance of knowledge and its dissemination in the wider economy. It emphasizes on targeted policy efforts to strengthen industry-science linkages (ISL) in the National Innovation System. It provides a number of other recommendations including financing of innovative entrepreneurs, integrating Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and innovation policy, efficiency of resource allocation to Research and Development (R&D) and so on.