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Water and adaptation to climate change

Impacts of climate change and variability on transboundary basins are evident in many regions in the world and increasing floods and droughts pose a challenge to water managers around the globe. Transboundary cooperation in adaptation is necessary to prevent maladaptation and increase the overall effectiveness of adaptation. The Water Convention and its Task Force on Water and Climate, led by the Netherlands and Switzerland, support countries in developing transboundary adaptation strategies and implementation of priority adaptation measures though guidance, projects on the ground and exchange of experience.

Guidance documents

The Guidance on Water and Adaptation to Climate Change, adopted by the Meeting of the Parties and published in 2009, is still relevant and provides step-by-step advice on how to adapt to climate change, with a special focus on transboundary basins.

The Guidance on Water Supply and Sanitation in Extreme Weather Events, prepared under the Protocol on Water and Health and published in 2011, illustrates effective ways to minimize impacts of extreme weather events on water and sanitation and related health risks.

A collection of lessons learned and good practices on climate change adaptation in transboundary basins was developed in 2013-2015 as a complement to the Guidance on Water and Adaptation to Climate Change in cooperation with the International Network of Basins Organizations (INBO) as well as other partners. The publication intends to compile, analyse and disseminate experiences, and thereby to demonstrate and illustrate important steps and lessons learned as well as good practices to take into account when developing a climate change adaptation strategy for water management in the basin or transboundary context.

The draft Implementation Guide for Addressing Water-Related Disasters and Transboundary Cooperation provides practical and evidence-based advice on integrating disaster risk management with water management and climate change adaptation. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in March 2015, stresses the importance of transboundary cooperation. A number of targeted Sendai Framework implementation guides are being developed at the moment, including the Words into Action guide on water and climate change. This guide is being developed by a multidisciplinary drafting group in collaboration with UNISDR.

Pilot Projects on adaptation to climate change in transboundary basin

The programme of pilot projects started in 2010, it aims at strengthening the capacity to adapt to climate change and to create positive examples demonstrating the benefits of transboundary cooperation in adaptation planning and implementation. They include joint impact and vulnerability assessment and the development of a basin-wide adaptation strategy. Representatives of the pilot projects usually meet annually to exchange experience between the pilot projects.

Pilot projects on the Chu-Talas, Dniester, Neman and Sava (outline of the Sava climate adaptation strategy) and  are directly implemented by the Water Convention in cooperation with other organizations such as UNDP, OSCE, UNEP, and WMO.

Global Network of Basins Working on Climate Change

Based on the experience of pilot projects, a Global Network of Basins Working on Climate Change was created in 2013.  The creation of this Network is one of the outcomes of the Sixth World Water Forum and coordinated by UNECE and INBO. The network of basins includes the above mentioned pilot projects as well as additional basins from other regions of the world, namely:
•    Amur/ Argun/ Daursky Biosphere Reserve
•    Congo
•    Danube
•    Drin basin
•    Lake Victoria basin
•    Mekong river basin
•    Meuse
•    Niger basin
•    Rhine
•    Senegal and the Northern Sahara aquifer system
•    Sixaola basin
•    The Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS)

The latest progress report on activities of the pilot projects and other basins in the global network is available here.

Platform for sharing experience on adaptation to climate change in transboundary basins

The platform for sharing experience includes regular workshops and a web-based platform. The range of annual workshops on water and adaptation to Climate Change brings together water and climate experts from around thhe world to share experience and lessons learnt. During these workshops, different examples and approaches for adaptation to climate change are being discussed such as dealing with uncertainty, using and preserving ecosystems for adaptation, structural measures, reducing water use, integrated flood management, economic analysis for evaluating adaptation options etc.

2017: International Workshop on Water Scarcity and Ninth meeting of the
Task Force on Water and Climate
2016: Third Meeting of the global network of basins working on climate change (6-7 April 2016)
2014: Fifth Workshop on adaptation to climate change in transboundary basins. Adaptation strategies: which measures for which outcomes at transboundary level                             
2013: Fourth Workshop on water and adaptation to climate change in transboundary basins: best practices, success factors and lessons learned
2012: Third workshop on water and adaptation to climate change: Making adaptation work
2011: Second workshop on water and adaptation to climate change: challenges, progress and lesson learnt
2010: First workshop in adaptation to climate change in transboundary basins
2009: Workshop on transboundary flood risk management
2008: International Workshop on Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Sector

Financing climate change adaptation in transboundary basins

Basin organisations and national authorities need to move toward implementing concrete measures contained in adaptation strategies (both structural and non-structural measures), such as flood protection infrastructure, storage reservoirs, green infrastructure or soft measures. Numerous funding mechanisms are now available from climate funds, multilateral development banks and development cooperation partners. However, basin organisations and national authorities often lack the capacity, knowledge and resources to prepare bankable project proposals for transboundary cooperation on climate change adaptation.

The Water Convention secretariat in cooperation with the African Water Facility (AWF/AfDB), the European Investment Bank (EIB), the International Network of Basin Organizations (INBO), the World Bank, the governments of the Netherlands and Switzerland organized training on how to prepare bankable projects for financing climate change adaptation in transboundary basins. The training was held on 21-23 June 2017 in Dakar, Senegal, hosted by the Senegal River Basin Development Authority (OMVS). Following the training, a guide is being prepared that will help to identify potential mechanisms and conditions of relevant donors providing funds for climate change adaptation and transboundary cooperation.

International cooperation

The climate change activities under the Water Convention are led by the Netherlands and Switzerland and made possible by funding from Austria, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the European Commission.
UNECE also cooperates with AGWA and the European Commission.

A leaflet about the Climate Change activities under the Water Convention can be found here:
English, French, Russian, Spanish.