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Global Warming and Transport

1. INNOVATIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

The UNECE World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) is the unique global forum where vehicle regulations are developed.  As a regulatory body, its responsibility for "greening the transport sector" is therefore huge.  53 Countries (including the European Union) are Contracting Parties to at least one of the two United Nations (UN) Agreements on vehicle regulations (1958 and 1998 Agreements) 1 and apply the vehicle regulations adopted by the World Forum (WP.29).  

These countries, representing the 5 Continents (almost all the European countries, USA, Canada, Japan, China, India, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, etc.), manufacture more than 80% of vehicles worldwide.  Other countries (Vietnam, Philippines, Cambodia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, the Community of the Arab Gulf Countries, the Southern African Developing Community (SADC), the South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Egypt, etc.) are either in the process of acceding to the UN 1958 and 1998 Agreements or have shown interest in acceding to them.  Some of them participate, as observers, in the World Forum.

The World Forum (WP.29) had, during its November 2008 session, a brief policy segment on the key issues and considered a possible strategy for the automotive sector with regard to the abatement of global warming and the reduction of CO2 emissions:

(a)      A short term objective through improved energy efficiency of vehicles and the use of sustainable biofuels (2015);

(b)      A mid term objective with the development and introduction into the market of plug-in hybrid vehicles (2020-2025), and;

(c)      A long term objective with development and introduction into the market of electric vehicles (2030-2040).

This strategy would shift the automotive sector from the use of fossil energy to the use of hydrogen and electric energy.  The World Forum called for an integrated approach, taking also into account that measures such as eco-driving and better traffic management may be very cost-effective in obtaining a short-term substantial CO2 reduction in the existing vehicle fleet.  For the effectiveness of this integrated strategy, the energy sector has to ensure the sustainable and cost-effective generation of electricity and production of hydrogen.

The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) is promoting measures for sustainable 2 development, including global warming mitigation such as environmentally friendly vehicles, worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedures including CO2 measurement, hybrid and electric vehicles, hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles, and numerous other measures on fuel efficiency, listed in the table below 3:

1

WLTP

Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures

 

Goal:

Develop new emissions test cycles and procedures for light vehicles with regard to the emissions of gaseous pollutants (NOx, CO, HC) and particles, including greenhouse gas CO2.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/wltp03.html

2

WHDC

Worldwide harmonized Heavy-Duty emission Certification procedure (gtr No. 4)

 

Goal:

To develop a new test procedure for the emissions of gaseous pollutants (NOx, CO, HC) and particles from heavy-duty vehicle engines, including the measurement method for CO2 emissions (in g/kWh).  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/whdc_minutes.html

3

WMTC

Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle emission Test Cycle (gtr No. 2)

 

Goal:

To develop a new test procedure for emissions of gaseous pollutants from motorcycle engines, including the measurement method for CO2 emissions (in g/km). More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/grperep.htm

4

NRMM

Engine exhaust emission test protocol for Non-Road Mobile Machinery (draft gtr No. 11)

 

Goal:

To develop new worldwide harmonized provisions for the measurement of emissions of gaseous pollutants (NOx, CO, HC, particles) from Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) engines, including the measurement method for CO2 emissions (in g/kWh).  For more information, see:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/nrmm_mtng_minutes.html

5

OCE

Off-Cycle Emissions for heavy-duty vehicles (gtr No. 10)

 

Goal:

To develop, in addition to the normal emission test cycle for heavy-duty vehicles (WHDC), further specifications for OBD systems especially regarding the adherence to a Not-to-exceed (NTE) protocol to ensure that emission limits are met in use, not only under normal conditions, but under a wide range of operating conditions (e.g. low temperatures, high altitude, etc.).  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/oce.html

6

WWH-OBD

World-Wide harmonized Heavy duty On-Board Diagnostics (gtr No. 5)

 

Goal:

To develop harmonized prescriptions for On-Board Diagnostics (OBD), which are used on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, in order to ensure in their daily service proper engine performance and to assist in malfunction diagnostics and repair.  More information can be found on:
http://oica.net/category/worldwide-harmonization/un-expert-group-documents/

7

PMP

Particulate Measurement Programme

 

Goal:

To develop new test protocols, with instrumentation, to assess and control nano-particle emissions from (a) light duty vehicles and from (b) heavy-duty vehicle engines within the range of 10 to 500 nm (with respect to health effects).  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/pmp22.html

8

FQ

Fuel Quality

 

Goal:

To develop recommendations on market fuel quality to enable that vehicles, which were tested in conformity with the UN regulations or other equivalent regulations and using specific reference fuels for the tests, use in their daily service fuels with specific characteristics relating to the vehicle emission levels and engine technology type.  For more information see:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/fq04.html

9

EFV

Environmentally Friendly Vehicles

 

Goal:

(a) To continue a fruitful cooperation between WP.29 and the future international conferences on Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EFV) and to foster the development and introduction of EFVs as well as renewable fuels.
(b) To review, in a short term view, the feasibility of the proposed EFV concept (evaluation method, holistic approach).  More information about the EFV informal group can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/efv04.html

10

HFCV

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles

 

Goal:

To develop and establish a global technical regulation (gtr) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (HFCV) that:
(a) attains equivalent levels of safety as those for conventional gasoline powered vehicles, without any restriction for future innovative technologies;
(b) limits the emissions of greenhouse gas emissions, taking into account all aspect regarding the environmental protection.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grsp/sgs_6.html
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grsp/elsa_6.html
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/grpehfcv-sge03.html

11

GFV

Gaseous-Fuelled Vehicles

 

Goal:

To foster vehicles using Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel in their propulsion system as well as to evaluate regulatory requirements regarding the use of LPG and CNG components and systems on vehicles, with the aim to adapt existing Regulations to technical progress and to update the performance requirements, taking into account new technologies.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/gfv07.html

12

PHEV

Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

 

Goal:

To better reflect in the existing Regulations Nos. 83 and 101 the environmental benefits of hybrid vehicle based on plug-in hybrid concepts.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html

13

HEV

Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

 

Goal:

To develop new provisions for HEV with regard to the measurement of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, electric energy consumption and to prepare the corresponding amendments to the existing Regulations.  More information can be found on: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html

14

EV

Electric Vehicles (Regulation No. 100)

 

Goal:

To develop a new Regulation for battery electric vehicles with regard to specific requirements for the construction, functional safety and hydrogen emission.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs81-100.html

15

CO2

Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions (Regulation No. 101)

 

Goal:

To set up a new Regulation for the measurement of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of motor vehicles.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs101-120.html

16

IVS

Intelligent Vehicle Systems

 

Goal:

To set up the information basis on which a new gtr on Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS) could be developed in a long term view.  In this respect, a common understanding of driver assistance systems should be developed, taking into account the latest information on technology trends.  For more information, see: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/itc/itcrt_its.html
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/genits16.html

17

RR

Reduction of the Rolling Resistance of pneumatic tyres

 

Goal:

To develop new provisions for the indication by the tyre manufacturers of the tyre rolling resistance coefficient in the type approval communication.  This will allow approval authorities to collect data on tyre rolling resistance coefficients and enable them to consider, at a later time point, the possible introduction into the corresponding Regulations of limit values for rolling resistance.  In a long term view, the new provisions will contribute to environmental protection, specifically to the reduction of fuel consumption of vehicles by a reduced rolling resistance of vehicle tyres.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grb/grbrep.html

18

RB

Regenerative Braking (Regulations Nos. 13 and 13-H)

 

Goal:

To develop electric regenerative braking systems able to recover the vehicle braking energy.  More information can be found on:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs1-20.html

19

TPMS

Tyre Pressure Monitoring Systems (Regulation No. 64)

 

Goal:

To develop new harmonized provisions for Tyre Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in order to (a) ensure the correct inflation of tyres fitted on vehicles and, thus, (b) to improve vehicle safety and an improved energy efficiency by reducing the rolling resistance.  For more information see:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grrf/grrf-inftpm5.html

20

LED

Headlamps with Light Emitting Diode technologies

 

Goal:

To improve the active safety and energy efficiency of vehicle headlamps by developing new provisions for the installation on vehicles of much more energy efficient lighting devices based on Light Emitting Diode (LED) technologies.

1) The World Forum WP.29 administers the following 3 Agreements:
The 1958 Agreement concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be fitted and / or be used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions, 1958 (http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html)

The 1997 Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions for Periodical Technical Inspections (PTI) of Wheeled Vehicles and the Reciprocal Recognition of Such Inspections, 1997 (http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp291997.html)

The 1998 Agreement concerning the Establishing of Global Technical Regulations (gtr) for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be fitted and / or be used on Wheeled Vehicles, 1998 (http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29glob.html)

For more information on the differences of these Agreements, please read

2) "Sustainable" means economical, environmental and social.

3) The table lists only the most important activities of the World Forum with regard to a better fuel efficiency of vehicles.  More information can be found at the WP.29 website

2.   ALTERNATIVE FUELS

The World Forum WP.29 undertook already a large number of measures in the past to reduce the impact of vehicles on the environment.  New Regulations have already been established for the use of alternative energy sources such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by Regulation No. 67 in 1987, compressed natural gas (CNG) by Regulation No. 110 in 2000 and specific LPG and CNG retrofit systems by Regulation No. 115 in 2003. 4

The World Forum WP.29 amended, in 2008, the provisions of Regulation No. 83 (Emissions of pollutants of passenger cars) to allow the use of biofuels.  It is obvious that such biofuels should be sustainable.  The University of Lausanne (EPFL) initiated a Round Table on Sustainable Biofuels to develop international sustainability criteria for biofuels.  A first draft of the principles, criteria, indicators and definitions of biofuels have recently been published at their website and Version 1.0 of the Sustainability Criteria is expected to be published by the end of 2009. 5

The World Forum demonstrated in 2007 that there is a close link between the market fuel quality and the emissions of pollutants from motor vehicles.  It recognized that further reduction of emissions through more stringent emission regulations requires more advanced emission control technologies, which drives the crucial need for appropriate fuels to be available on the market to consumers.

At this aim, the World Forum set up an informal group to develop by 2010 recommendations on market fuel quality to enable that vehicles, which were tested in conformity with the UN regulations and using specific reference fuels for the tests, use in their daily service fuels with specific characteristics relating to the vehicle emission levels and technology type of the engine. 6


4) Regulation No. 67 is available at:www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs61-80.html Regulations Nos. 110 and 115 are available at: www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs101-120.html

5) For more information on the sustainability criteria for biofuels see: cgse.epfl.ch/page65660-en.html



© United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe – 2013