The Dniester Process
The 1,362-kilometre-long Dniester River is one of the largest Eastern European rivers. It starts in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine, flows through the Republic of Moldova and then re-enters Ukraine where it discharges into the Black Sea. In addition to supplying drinking water for a large part of the basin, including the major city of Odessa (Ukraine), hydropower generation and fisheries are other important sectors the river serves.
The Dniester process supporting the development of transboundary cooperation between the two Riparians, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine, has been jointly managed by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) as part of the Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC, see www.envsec.org). Three projects – Dniester-I, II and III – have supported the development of the transboundary cooperation on the Dniester River Basin, including the involvement of institutions in Transnistria. Finland and Sweden have provided financial support.
The Dniester-I project (2004–2006), “Transboundary cooperation and sustainable management of the Dniester river”, assisted the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine in the development of a diagnostic study of the transboundary issues in the basin.
Dniester-II (2006–2007), “Action Programme to improve transboundary cooperation and sustainable management of the Dniester river”, focused on the development of a programme to improve transboundary cooperation.
The Dniester-III project (2009-2011), “Transboundary cooperation and sustainable management in the Dniester River basin: Phase III - Implementation of the Action Programme”, implemented in 2009-2011, assisted the two Governments in the development and negotiations of the Dniester Treaty.
On 29 November 2012 the Minister of Environment of the Republic of Moldova, Mr. Gheorge Salaru, and the Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, Mr. Eduard Stavytskyi, signed the bilateral Treaty on Cooperation on the Conservation and Sustainable Development of the Dniester River Basin. The signing ceremony took place at the sixth session of the Meeting of the Parties to the UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Water Convention) in Rome (see Treaty text and press release).
The new Treaty identifies principles and provides a framework for cooperation on water pollution prevention and control, water flow regulation, conservation of biodiversity and protection of the Black Sea environment. It also addresses the monitoring of data exchange, public participation and cooperation in emergency situations.
The Treaty is a pioneering example for the region in the post-Soviet era. It significantly broadens the existing cooperation arrangements to cover the entire river basin and all sectors important for the management and protection of the shared waters. The Treaty establishes the bilateral Dniester Commission to facilitate sustainable use and protection of the Basin. It is an important step in the implementation by the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine of their obligations under the UNECE Water Convention.
The achievements of the three subsequent Dniester projects include improved cooperation and coordination between health authorities in the region responsible for the quality of drinking water; establishment of transboundary cooperation on biodiversity including the management of fish stocks; improved sharing and management of information on the basin; and increased awareness among stakeholders and the public about the value of the water resources in the Dniester Basin and the threats they face. An on-going component aims to reduce vulnerability to floods.
More information on the river, the transboundary cooperation and projects can be found here.