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The Implementation Committee was established by the Executive Body in 1997 to review compliance by Parties with their obligations under the protocols to the Convention.

The Committee's work focuses on three main areas:

(i) it considers any submission or referral of possible non-compliance by an individual Party with any of its emission reduction obligations under a given protocol

(ii) it reviews periodically compliance by Parties with their reporting obligations based on referrals by the secretariat:

The review of compliance with the obligations to report emission data is based on the emission data submitted by Parties to the Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP). This data is available in the emission database WEBDAB. Overview tables of emission data by pollutant and in relation to each Parties emission reduction obligations under the different protocols are available here.

The review of compliance with the obligations to report on strategies and policies was based on Parties' responses to the Questionnaire on Strategies and Policies which was sent to Parties on a biennial basis until 2010 (to view the responses log in as "guest", no password is required). Following Executive Body decision 2013/2 on “Reporting on strategies, policies and other measures to implement obligations under the Convention and its Protocols” the sessions of the Working Group on Strategies and Review are now being considered the format for reporting on strategies, policies and measures and have thus replaced the questionnaire.

(iii) it carries out in-depth reviews of specified obligations in an individual protocol at the request of the Executive Body

The Implementation Committee is not a decision-making body. It meets twice a year and reports annually to the Executive Body which makes decisions upon recommendations by the Committee.

The Committee consists of nine Parties to the Convention, each elected for a term of two years.

Executive Body Decision 2012/25 on "Improving the functioning of the Implementation Committee" contains the Committee's Terms of Reference "Implementation Committee, its structure and functions and procedures for review of compliance." It supersedes the Committee's previous Terms of References contained in Executive Body Decision 2006/2.