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List of Abbreviations

Besides the common abbreviations, symbols and terms, the following have been used:


In tables on the status of ratification 

 

RRatification

"Ratification" defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.

[Arts.2 (1) (b), 14 (1) and 16, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

AcAccession

"Accession" is the act whereby a state accepts the offer or the opportunity to become a party to a treaty already negotiated and signed by other states. It has the same legal effect as ratification. Accession usually occurs after the treaty has entered into force. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his function as depositary, has also accepted accessions to some conventions before their entry into force. The conditions under which accession may occur and the procedure involved depend on the provisions of the treaty. A treaty might provide for the accession of all other states or for a limited and defined number of states. In the absence of such a provision, accession can only occur where the negotiating states were agreed or subsequently agree on it in the case of the state in question.

[Arts.2 (1) (b) and 15, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

ApApproval

The instruments of "acceptance" or "approval" of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty. In the practice of certain states acceptance and approval have been used instead of ratification when, at a national level, constitutional law does not require the treaty to be ratified by the head of state.

[Arts.2 (1) (b) and 14 (2), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

AtAcceptance

The instruments of "acceptance" or "approval" of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty. In the practice of certain states acceptance and approval have been used instead of ratification when, at a national level, constitutional law does not require the treaty to be ratified by the head of state.

[Arts.2 (1) (b) and 14 (2), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

ScSuccession

 

(1) With declaration upon signature.
(2) With declaration upon ratification.
(3) For the Kingdom in Europe.
(4) Including the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, the United Kingdom Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekhelia on the Island of Cyprus.
(5) Including the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, the Isle of Man.
(6) Not applying to the Faeroe Islands and Greenland.


In the flow chart 
ICPInternational Cooperative Programme
TFTask Force
WGWorking Group
CCCoordination Centre
CCCChemical Coordinating Centre
CCECoordination Center for Effects
MRC Main research Centre
MSC-EMeteorological Synthesizing Centre-East
MSC-WMeteorological Synthesizing Centre-West 
PC Programme Centre
PCCProgramme Coordination Centre 
In the legal texts of the convention and its protocols
 
Currencies
DMDeutsche mark
ECUEuropean currency unit
US$United States dollar
Organizations, centres and programmes
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
EMEPCooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe
MSC-EMeteorological Synthesizing Centre-East
MSC-WMeteorological Synthesizing Centre-West
SAPRC Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, Los Angeles, United States of America
UNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme
 
Weights and measures
C Celsius
g Gram
GJ Gigajoule
h Hour
K Kelvin
kg Kilogram
km Kilometre
km2 Square kilometre
kPa Kilopascal
kt Kilotonne
kWel Kilowatt (electric)
kWh Kilowatt-hour
m2 quare metre
m3 Cubic metre
mg  Milligram
MW Megawatt
MWel  Megawatt (electric)
MWth Megawatt (thermal)
t Tonne
 

 

Technical and scientific abbreviations

A B C D E F G H I J L K M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

AC Activated carbon process
AD Air dried
AS  Ammonia scrubbing
BBF Biased-burner-firing
BE Bitumen emulsion
BFBC Bubbling fluidized bed combustion
BOOS Burner-out-of-service
CCGT Combined cycle gas turbine
CFBC Circulating fluidized bed combustion
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CNG  Compressed natural gas
CO Carbon monoxide
CO2  Carbon dioxide
DBB Dry bottom boiler
EBDS Electron beam dry scrubbing
EGR Exhaust gas recirculation
FBC Fluidized bed combustion
FGD Flue gas desulphurization
FGR Flue gas recirculation
HDV Heavy-duty vehicle
IC engine Internal combustion engine
IFNR In-furnace-NOx-reduction reburning
IGCC Integrated gasification combined cycle
LEA Low excess air combustion
LNB Low NOx burner
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
LWS Lime/limestone wet scrubbing
MIR Maximum incremental reactivity
NH3 Ammonia
NO Nitrogen oxide
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
NOx Nitrogen oxides
N2O Dinitrogen monoxide
O3  Ozone
OBD  On-board diagnostic system
OFA Over fire air combustion
PF Pulverized fuel
PFBC Pressurized fluidized bed combustion
POCP  Photochemical ozone creation potential
ppb Parts per billion
ppmv Parts per million by volume
RAP Reduced air preheat
RVP Reid vapour pressure
SCR  Selective catalytic reduction
SDA Spray dry absorption
SNCR Selective non-catalytic reduction
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SO3 Sulphur trioxide
SOx  Sulphur oxides
SOMA  Sulphur oxides management area
STP Standard temperature (0 C) and pressure (1.013 x 105 Pa)
TOMA Tropospheric ozone management area
UV Ultraviolet
VOC Volatile organic compound
WBB Wet bottom boiler
WL Wellman Lord process
WSA Wet sulphuric acid catalytic process
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