This report focuses on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 29 emerging economies in the ECE region. This group is quite heterogeneous in terms of the level of development, gathering 10 post-transition EU member States (NMS) as well as 12 post-Soviet republics in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and 7 countries in South-Eastern Europe (SEE).1 Some 472 million people live in the three sub-regions, including 102 million in the NMS (including 38 million in Poland), 276 million in the EECCA (of which 142 million live in Russia), and about 94 million in the SEE (including 72 million in Turkey). The region as a whole is characterized by high levels of economic and human development. However, the regional averages on MDG progress mask considerable disparities between countries and within countries. Therefore, making economic growth more inclusive and sustainable, and adopting social protection systems and policies that reduce social and economic gaps is an imperative for all countries of the region.