Terms and definitions applied in the UN-ECE/FAO Temperate and Boreal Forest Resources Assessment 2000
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|No.||Terms||Definitions|| Relevance to |
| Relevance to |
|1.||Above-stump woody biomass||The mass of the woody part (stem, bark, branches, twigs) of trees, alive or dead, shrubs and bushes, excluding stumps and roots.||14||40-41|
|2.||Annual fellings||Average annual standing volume of all trees, living or dead, measured overbark to a minimum diameter of 0 cm (d.b.h.) that are felled during the given reference period, including the volume of trees or parts of trees that are not removed from the forest, other wooded land or other felling site. |
Includes: silvicultural and pre-commercial thinnings and cleanings left in the forest; and natural losses that are recovered (harvested).
|3.||Annual removals||Average annual of those fellings that are removed from the forest, other wooded land or other felling site during the given reference period. |
Includes: Removals during the given reference period of trees felled during an earlier period and removal of trees killed or damaged by natural causes (natural losses), e.g. fire, windblow, insects and diseases.
|4.||Broadleaved||All trees classified botanically as Angiospermae |
They are sometimes referred to as "non-coniferous" or "hardwoods".
|3, 13-17, 20||3-6, 27, 31, |
35-36, 38, 41, 43-49, 51-52, 78
|5.||Coniferous||All trees classified botanically as Gymnospermae |
They are sometimes referred to as "softwoods".
|3, 13-17, 20||3-6, 26, 30, |
35-36, 38, 41,43-49, 51-52, 77
|6.||Coppice and coppice with standards||Forest composed of stool-shoots or root suckers with or without scattered trees (standards), which may be of seedling or coppice origin.||4||5, 6|
|7.||Coppice sprouting||The regrowth from coppice stools after the previous stand has been cut.||11||66, 68|
|8.||Damage to forest||Disturbance to the forest which may be caused by biotic or abiotic agents, resulting in death, or a significant loss of vitality, productivity or value of trees and other components of the forest ecosystem.||18||70-75|
|9.||Defoliation classes||The extent of visually assessed defoliation of trees, as developed by the International Co-operative Programme (ICP Forests) of the Executive Committee for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe. |
Damage classes are from 0 to 4, as follows:
Class Needle/Leaf loss Degree of defoliation
0 up to and including 10% none
1 > 10 to 25 % slight
2 > 25 to 60 % moderate
3 > 60 to < 100 % severe
4 100% dead
*/ For methods of assessment and other concepts, see ICP documentation.
|10.||Domesticated introduced tree species||Introduced tree species planted outside their natural biotope, area or region, which have become established sufficiently well after at least one generation that they have grown satisfactorily, have not shown themselves prone to serious insect or fungal (or other diseases) attack and have been able to regenerate themselves naturally.||9||…|
|11.||Endangered species||Species classified by an objective process (e.g. national "Red Book") as being in IUCN categories "critically endangered" and "endangered". A species is considered to be a critically endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future. It is considered "endangered" when it is not critically endangered but is still facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.||10||56-64|
|12.||Endemic species||Species is endemic when found only in a certain strictly limited geographical region, i.e. restricted to a specified region or locality.||10||56-64|
|13.||Even-aged (high forest)||High forest in which the predominant proportion of the trees falls into the same age class, generally resulting in a single storey forest.||13||25-32|
|14.||Forest available for wood supply||Forest where any legal, economic, or specific environmental restrictions do not have a significant impact on the supply of wood. |
Includes: areas where, although there are no such restrictions, harvesting is not taking place, for example areas included in long-term utilization plans or intentions.
|3-5, 7, |
|3, 5, 8, 12- 13, 15-16, 25-38, 41, 43-52|
|15.||Forest||Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 ha. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m at maturity in situ. May consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground; or of open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10 percent. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes which have yet to reach a crown density of 10 percent or tree height of 5m are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest. |
Includes: Forest nurseries and seed orchards that constitute an integral part of the forest; forest roads, cleared tracts, firebreaks and other small open areas within the forest; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of special environmental, scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest; windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with an area of more than 0.5 ha and a width of more than 20 m. Rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands are included.
Excludes: Land predominantly used for agricultural practices.
|1-3, 5-8, 11, 14-17, 19, 21||1-4, 7-8, 11, 13-16, 18, 21-22, 33-35, 37-39, 41-45, 47-51, 53-55, 65-69|
|16.||Forest Fire||Fire which breaks out and spreads on forest and other wooded land or which breaks out on other land and spreads to forest and other wooded land. |
Excludes: Prescribed or controlled burning, usually with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the quantity of accumulated fuel on the ground.
|17.||Forest industries (owned by)||Forest and other wooded land owned by private wood-processing enterprises or industries.||5, 23||12, 15, 81|
|18.||Forest not available for wood supply||Forest where legal, economic or specific environmental restrictions prevent any significant supply of wood. |
Includes: (a) Forest with legal restrictions or restrictions resulting from other political decisions, which totally exclude or severely limit wood supply, inter alia for reasons of environmental or biodiversity conservation, e.g. protection forest, national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas, such as those of special environmental, scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest;
(b) Forest where physical productivity or wood quality is too low or harvesting and transport costs are too high to warrant wood harvesting, apart from occasional cuttings for auto-consumption.
|3, 4, 7, |
|6, 8, 17, 33-35, 39, 41, 43-45, 47-48, 50|
|19.||Forest/other wooded land with damage from unidentifiable causes||Forest/other wooded land with damage, the cause of which is unknown or could be a combination of a number of agents. |
|20.||Forest/other wooded land undisturbed by man||Forest/other wooded land which shows natural forest dynamics, such as natural tree composition, occurrence of dead wood, natural age structure and natural regeneration processes, the area of which is large enough to maintain its natural characteristics and where there has been no known significant human intervention or where the last significant human intervention was long enough ago to have allowed the natural species composition and processes to have become re-established.||2||53, 54|
|21.||Gross annual increment||Average annual volume of increment over the reference period of all trees, measured to a minimum diameter breast height (d.b.h.) of 0 centimetres (cm). |
Includes: The increment on trees which have been felled or die during the reference period.
|22.||Growing stock||The living tree component of the standing volume.||14, 17||34-38|
|23.||High forest||Forest normally composed of trees of seedling origin, but may also include trees from vegetative reproduction, e.g. poplars. |
Includes: stands in process of transformation into high forest.
|4, 13||5, 29-32|
|24.||Holding||One or more parcels of forest and other wooded land which constitute a single unit from the point of view of management or utilization. For State-owned forest and other wooded land a holding may be defined as the area forming a major management unit administered by a senior official, .e.g. a Regional Forestry Officer. For forest and other wooded land that is owned publicly, other than by the State, or owned by large-scale forest owners, e.g. forest industries, a holding may constitute a number of separated properties which are, however, managed according to one corporate strategy. Under any category of ownership, other than State-owned, one holding may be the property of one or several owners.||6||18-24|
|25.||Indigenous tree species||Tree species which have evolved in the same area, region or biotope where the forest stand is growing and are adapted to the specific ecological conditions predominant at the time of the establishment of the stand. |
May also be termed native species or autochthonous species.
|9, 12||65-67, 69|
|26.||Indigenous and tribal peoples||Indigenous and tribal peoples in independent countries are defined as those who: |
(1) are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical region to which the country belongs, at a time of conquest or colonization or the establishment of present state boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal status, retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions;
(2) are tribal peoples whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partly by their own customs or traditions or by special laws and regulations.
For both categories (1) and (2) self-identification as indigenous or tribal shall be regarded as the fundamental criterion for determining the groups. (Source: ILO Convention No. 169 on "indigenous and tribal peoples").
|5, 22, 23||9-17, 81|
|27.||Inland water||Area occupied by major rivers, lakes and reservoirs.||1||1|
|28.||IUCN Protection categories |
I. Strict nature reserve/ wilderness area
|Guidance on interpretation of these definitions may be obtained from IUCN. (see footnote in "Definitions to Table 10", page 26 of the enquiry) |
Protected area managed mainly for science or wilderness protection.
These areas possess some outstanding ecosystems, features and/or species of flora and fauna of national scientific importance, or they are representative of particular natural areas.They often contain fragile ecosystems or life forms, areas of important biological or geological diversity, or areas of particular importance to the conservation of genetic resources. Public access is generally not permitted. Natural processes are allowed to take place in the absence of any direct human interference, tourism and recreation. Ecological processes may include natural acts that alter the ecological system or physiographic features, such as naturally occurring fires, natural succession, insect or disease outbreaks, storms, earthquakes and the like, but necessarily excluding man-induced disturbances.
|II. National Park||Protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. |
National parks are relatively large areas, which contain representative samples of major natural regions, features or scenery, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites, and habitats are of special scientific, educational and recreational interest. The area is managed and developed so as to sustain recreation and educational activities on a controlled basis. The area and visitors' use are managed at a level which maintains the area in a natural or semi-natural state.
|III. Natural monument||Protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features. |
This category normally contains one or more natural features of outstanding national interest being protected because of their uniqueness or rarity. Size is not of great importance. The areas should be managed to remain relatively free of human disturbance, although they may have recreational and touristic value.
|IV. Habitat/ |
Species management area
|Protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention. |
The areas covered may consist of nesting areas of colonial bird species, marshes or lakes, estuaries, forest or grassland habitats, or fish spawning or seagrass feeding beds for marine animals. The production of harvestable renewable resources may play a secondary role in the management of the area. The area may require habitat manipulation (mowing, sheep or cattle grazing, etc).
|V. Protected landscape/ |
|Protected areas managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation. |
The diversity of areas falling into this category is very large. They include those whose landscapes possess special aesthetic qualities which are a result of the interaction of man and land or water, traditional practices associated with agriculture, grazing and fishing being dominant; and those that are primarily natural areas, such as coastline, lake or river shores, hilly or mountainous terrains, managed intensively by man for recreation and tourism.
|VI. Managed resource protection area||Protected area managed for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. |
Normally covers extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited areas having difficult access, or regions that are relatively sparsely populated but are under considerable pressure for colonization or greater utilization.
|29.||Individuals (owned by)||Forest and other wooded land owned by individuals or families, including those who have formed themselves into companies. |
Includes: individuals and families who combine forestry with agriculture (farm forests), those who live in or near their forest holdings, and those who live elsewhere (absentee owners).
|5, 23||12, 15, 81|
|30.||Introduced tree species||Tree species occurring outside their natural vegetation zone, area or region. |
May also be termed non-indigenous species.
|31.||Invasive species||Species of fauna and flora of non-local origin which has established itself or has been introduced into a given area and has spread in the natural conditions on an undesirable scale, e.g. to the extent that it has replaced or seriously suppressed the species previously occupying this specific area.||10||…|
|32.||Land area||Total area, excluding inland water.||1||1, 2|
|33.||Legal right of access||Where the public are legally entitled to visit forest and other wooded land, whether publicly owned or owned by third parties. Some activities by the visiting public may however be forbidden or restricted.||23||81|
|34.||Local provenance||Genetic material which has originated from a place and a source considered as local for the area where it has been planted. |
Excludes: provenance from seed-orchards.
|35.||Managed forest/other wooded land||Forest and other wooded land which is managed in accordance with a formal or an informal plan applied regularly over a sufficiently long period (five years or more). The management operations include the tasks to be accomplished in individual forest stands (e.g. compartments) during the given period.||5||9-10, 14-17|
|36.||Mixed forest/other wooded land||Forest/other wooded land on which neither coniferous, nor broadleaved, nor palms, bamboos, etc account for more than 75 percent of the tree crown area.||3||3-6, 28, 32|
|37.||Natural colonization of non-forest land||The colonization of non-forest land with forest trees through stages of natural succession without human intervention. |
Natural colonization may frequently occur after other (non-forest) land has been abandoned or withdrawn from its former utilization, e.g. farming or pasturing.
|38.||Natural conversion of other wooded land to forest||The conversion of other wooded land to forest as a result of natural processes. The process may occur without intentional intervention by man, but may be aided by human interventions such as the withdrawal of animal grazing from the land allowing tree regeneration to succeed, soil scarification, or actions to protect the area from fire, over-cutting, etc.||11||65, 67-68|
|39.||Natural losses||Average annual losses to the growing stock during the given reference period, measured to a minimum diameter of 0 cm (d.b.h.), due to mortality from causes other than cutting by man, e.g. natural mortality, diseases, insect attacks, fire, windthrow or other physical damage.||15-16||44, 48|
|40.||Natural regeneration||Re-establishment of a forest stand by natural means, i.e. by natural seeding or vegetative regeneration. It may be assisted by human intervention, e.g. by scarification or fencing to protect against wildlife damage or domestic animal grazing. |
|41.||Natural regeneration enhanced by planting||Natural regeneration which has been combined with artificial planting or seeding, either to ensure satisfactory restocking with the naturally regenerated species or to increase species diversity.||11||66, 68|
|42.||Net annual increment||Average annual volume over the given reference period of gross increment less that of natural losses on all trees to a minimum diameter of 0 cm (d.b.h.).||15||42, 45-46|
|43.||Non-local provenance||Genetic material which has originated from a place and a source not considered as local for the area where it has been planted. |
Includes: provenance from seed-orchards.
|44.||Other land||Land not classified as forest or other wooded land as they are defined in this enquiry.||1||1|
|Other private institutions (owned by)||Forest/other wooded land owned by private corporations, co-operatives or institutions (religious, educational, pension or investment funds, nature conservation societies, etc).||5, 23||12, 15, 81|
|46.||Other public institutions (owned by)||Forest/other wooded land belonging to cities, municipalities, villages and communes. |
Includes: Any publicly owned forest and other wooded land not classified as being "in State ownership".
|5, 23||12, 15, 81|
|47.||Other wooded land||Land either with a tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of 5-10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ; or a crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent of trees not able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ (e.g. dwarf or stunted trees) and shrub or bush cover. |
Excludes: Areas having the tree, shrub or bush cover specified above but of less than 0.5 ha and width of 20 m, which are classed under "other land" ; Land predominantly used for agricultural practices.
|1-3, 5, 7-8, 11, 14-16, 21||1-4, 7-8, 11, 14, 37-39, 42, 47, 50|
|48.||Plantation (s)||Forest stands established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either: |
- of introduced species (all planted stands), or
- intensively managed stands of indigenous species which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.
Excludes: Stands which were established as plantations but which have been without intensive management for a significant period of time. These should be considered semi-natural.
|49.||Planting and seeding||The act of establishing a forest stand (e.g. plantation) or re-establishing a forest stand by artificial means, either by planting of seedlings or by scattering seed. The material used may be of indigenous or introduced origin. Planting and seeding may take place on forest, other wooded land or other land.||11||66-68|
|50.||Predominantly bamboos, palms, etc.||Forest/other wooded land on which more than 75 percent of the crown cover consists of tree species other than coniferous or broadleaved species (e.g. tree-form members of the bamboo, palm, fern families).||3, 13||3-6|
|51.||Predominantly broadleaved||Forest/other wooded land on which more than 75 percent of the tree crown cover consists of broadleaved species.||3, 13||3-6|
|52.||Predominantly coniferous||Forest/other wooded land on which more than 75 percent of the tree crown cover consists of coniferous species.||3, 13||3-6|
|53.||Primarily damaged by fire||Forest and other wooded land, the vegetation on which, including the trees, has been wholly or largely destroyed by fire.||18||70, 71|
|54.||Primarily damaged by insects and disease||Forest and other wooded land where insect attack or disease has been identified as the primary cause of damage.||18||70, 71|
|55.||Primarily damaged from known local pollution sources||Forest and other wooded land where damage can be attributed with reasonable certainty to pollutant deposition from an identified local source or sources.||18||70, 71|
|56.||Primarily damaged by storm, wind, snow or other identifiable abiotic factors||Forest and other wooded land on which the trees have been felled or damaged by storm, wind, snow or other abiotic factors such as avalanches, landslides or flooding.||18||70, 71|
|57.||Primarily damaged by wildlife and grazing||Forest and other wooded land where damage has been caused by wildlife or grazing by domestic animals. |
Includes: Grazing or browsing of young plants, preventing or delaying the establishment or regeneration of the stand.
|58.||Private ownership (in)||Forest/other wooded land owned by individuals, families, co-operatives and corporations which may be engaged in agriculture or other occupations as well as forestry; private forest enterprises and industries; private corporations and other institutions (religious and educational institutions, pension and investment funds, nature conservation societies, etc).||5, 6, 23||9-18, 20, 22, 24, 81|
|59.||Protection||The function of forest/other wooded land in providing protection of soil against erosion by water or wind, prevention of desertification, the reduction of risk of avalanches and rock or mud slides; and in conserving, protecting and regulating the quantity and quality of water supply, including the prevention of flooding. |
Includes: Protection against air and noise pollution.
|60.||Public ownership (in)||Forest/other wooded land belonging to the State or other public bodies.||5, 6, 23||9-19, 21, 23|
|61.||Reference period||The year or years during which the national forest inventory or other method of collection of the data reported in the forest resources assessment was carried out.||General application||General application|
|62.||Regeneration||Re-establishment of a forest stand by natural or artificial means following the removal of the previous stand by felling or as a result of natural causes, e.g. fire or storm.||11||65-66, 68|
|63.||Removals for commercial use||Annual removals that generate revenue for the owner of the forest or other wooded land or trees outside the forest. |
Includes: Removals of wood destined for domestic consumption after further processing, e.g. into sawnwood, fencing or construction material.
Excludes: Removals of wood for direct auto-consumption, e.g. of fuelwood.
|64.||"Rotation age"||"The planned number of years between the establishment or regeneration of a tree crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage of maturity".||…||…|
|65.||Semi-natural forest/other wooded land||Forest/other wooded land which is neither "forest/other wooded land undisturbed by man" nor "plantation" as defined separately.||2||53-54|
|66.||Shrubs and bushes||Woody perennial plants, generally of more than 0.5 m and less than 5 m height, and often without a definite stem and crown.||14||40-41|
|67.||Species at risk||Species in IUCN categories "vulnerable", "conservation dependent" and "near threatened". |
A species is "vulnerable" when it is not critically endangered or endangered (see "Endangered species"), but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future. A "conservation dependent" species is one which is the focus of a continuing species-specific or habitat-specific conservation programme, the cessation of which would result in the species qualifying for one of the threatened species categories within a period of five years. "Near threatened" species are ones that do not meet the criterion of conservation dependent but which are close to qualifying as vulnerable.
|68.||Species occurring on forest/other wooded land||Species of fauna and flora which occurs on forest or other wooded land for at least part of its everyday existence, e.g. for shelter, feeding, nesting or breeding.||9, 10||56-64|
|69.||Standing volume||Volume of standing trees, living or dead, above-stump measured overbark to top (0 cm). Includes all trees with diameter over 0 cm (d.b.h.) |
Includes: Tops of stems, large branches; dead trees lying on the ground which can still be used for fibre or fuel.
Excludes: Small branches, twigs and foliage.
|70.||State ownership (in)||Forest/other wooded land owned by national, state and regional governments, or by government-owned corporations; Crown forest and other wooded land.||5, 23||12, 15, 81|
|71.||Stumps and roots||Parts of the whole tree volume, which exclude the volume of the above-stump woody biomass. The height of the stump is taken to be that at which the tree would be cut under normal felling practices in that country or region. |
Excludes: Small roots.
|72.||Total area||Total area of country, including area of inland water bodies. |
Excludes: offshore territorial waters.
|73.||Tree||A woody perennial with a single main stem or, in the case of coppice, with several stems, having a more or less definite crown. |
Includes: Bamboos, palms and other woody plants meeting the above criterion.
|74.||Trees outside the forest||Trees on land other than forest or other wooded land. |
Includes: Trees on land that meets the definitions of forest and of other wooded land except that the area is less than 0.5 ha and the width is less than 20 m; scattered trees in permanent meadows and pastures; permanent tree crops such as fruit tree orchards and coconut palm plantations; trees in parks and gardens, around buildings, in hedgerows and in lines along streets, roads, railways, rivers, streams and canals; trees in shelterbelts and windbreaks of less than 20 m in width and 0.5 ha in area.
|14, 15, 16||33, 39, 42, |
|75.||Under regeneration||Forest being prepared for regeneration or in the process of reforestation by planting, seeding or natural regeneration after the previous stand was totally or partly removed, e.g. by felling, fire or windblow. |
Includes: Stands of seed trees.
|76.||Uneven-aged (high forest)||High forest in which there is a mixture of different age classes. Usually, the trees can not be separated into different storeys.||13||25-28|
|77.||Woody biomass||The mass of the woody parts (wood, bark, branches, twigs, stumps and roots) of trees, alive and dead, shrubs and bushes, measured to a minimum diameter of 0 mm (d.b.h.). |
Includes: Above-stump woody biomass, and stumps and roots.