About the GHS

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

Chemicals, through the different steps from their production to their handling, transport and use, are a real danger for human health and the environment. People of any ages, from children to elderly, using many different languages and alphabets, belonging to various social conditions, including illiterates, are daily confronted to dangerous products (chemicals, pesticides, etc.). 

To face this danger, and given the reality of the extensive global trade in chemicals and the need to develop national programs to ensure their safe use, transport and disposal, it was recognized that an internationally-harmonized approach to classification and labelling would provide the foundation for such programs. Once countries have consistent and appropriate information on the chemicals they import or produce in their own countries, the infrastructure to control chemical exposures and protect people and the environment can be established in a comprehensive manner.

The new system, which was called "Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)", addresses classification of chemicals by types of hazard and proposes harmonized hazard communication elements, including labels and safety data sheets. It aims at ensuring that information on physical hazards and toxicity from chemicals be available in order to enhance the protection of human health and the environment during the handling, transport and use of these chemicals. The GHS also provides a basis for harmonization of rules and regulations on chemicals at national, regional and worldwide level, an important factor also for trade facilitation.

While governments, regional institutions and international organizations are the primary audiences for the GHS, it also contains sufficient context and guidance for those in industry who will ultimately be implementing the requirements which have been adopted.

The first edition of the GHS, which was intended to serve as the initial basis for the global implementation of the system, was adopted in December 2002 and published in 2003. Since then, the GHS has been updated, revised and improved every two years as needs arise and experience is gained in its implementation:

  • GHS Rev.1 (2005): includes, inter alia, various revised provisions concerning classification and labelling, new provisions for aspiration hazards and new guidance on the use of precautionary statements and pictograms and on the preparation of safety data sheets
  • GHS Rev.2 (2007): includes, inter alia, new and revised provisions concerning the classification and labelling of explosives; respiratory and skin sensitizers; toxic by inhalation gases and gas mixtures; additional guidance on the interpretation of the building block approach and on the evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals; and the codification of hazard and precautionary statements
  • GHS Rev.3 (2009): includes, inter alia, new provisions for the allocation of hazard statements and for the labelling of small packagings; two new sub-categories for respiratory and skin sensitization; the revision of the classification criteria for long-term hazards (chronic toxicity) to the aquatic environment; and a new hazard class for substances and mixtures hazardous to the ozone layer
  • GHS Rev.4 (2011):  includes, inter alia, new hazard categories for chemically unstable gases and non-flammable aerosols; further rationalization of precautionary statements and further clarification of some of the criteria to avoid differences in their interpretation
  • GHS Rev.5 (2013):  includes, inter alia, a new test method for oxidizing solids, miscellaneous provisions intended to further clarify the criteria for some hazard classes (skin corrosion/irritation, severe eye damage/irritation, and aerosols) and to complement the information to be included in the Safety Data Sheet; revised and simplified classification and labelling summary tables; a new codification system for hazard pictograms, and revised and further rationalized precautionary statements.
  • GHS Rev.6 (2015): includes, inter alia, a new hazard class for desensitized explosives and a new hazard category for pyrophoric gases; miscellaneous provisions intended to clarify the criteria for some hazard classes (explosives, specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, aspiration hazard and hazardous to the aquatic environment); additional information to be included in the Safety Data Sheets (section 9); revised and further rationalized precautionary statements and a new example in Annex 7 addressing labelling of small packagings.
  • GHS Rev.7 (2017): includes, inter alia, revised criteria for categorisation of flammable gases within Category 1; miscellaneous amendments intended to clarify the definitions of some health hazard classes; additional guidance to extend the coverage of section 14 of the Safety Data Sheets to all bulk cargoes transported under instruments of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), regardless of their physical state; revised and further rationalized precautionary statements in Annex 3; and a new example in Annex 7 addressing labelling of small packagings with fold-out labels.
  • GHS Rev.8 (2019): includes, inter alia, new classification criteria, hazard communication elements, decision logics and guidance for chemicals under pressure; new provisions for the use of in vitro/ex vivo data and non-test methods to assess skin corrosion and skin irritation; miscellaneous amendments to clarify the classification criteria for Specific Target Organ Toxicity; revised and further rationalized precautionary statements and an editorial revision of Sections 2 and 3 of Annex 3; new examples of precautionary pictograms to convey the precautionary statement “Keep out reach of children”; a new example in Annex 7 addressing labelling of sets or kits; guidance on the identification of dust explosion hazards and the need for risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, and hazard communication.

The System is ready for worldwide implementation. In its Plan of Implementation (para 22.(c)) adopted in Johannesburg on 4 September 2002, the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) encouraged countries to implement the new GHS as soon as possible. Information about the status of implementation of the GHS by country is available (in English only) here.