The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone
The Executive Body adopted the Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone in Gothenburg (Sweden) on 30 November 1999.
The Protocol sets emission ceilings for 2010 for four pollutants: sulphur, NOx, VOCs and ammonia. These ceilings were negotiated on the basis of scientific assessments of pollution effects and abatement options. Parties whose emissions have a more severe environmental or health impact and whose emissions are relatively cheap to reduce will have to make the biggest cuts. Once the Protocol is fully implemented, Europe’s sulphur emissions should be cut by at least 63%, its NOx emissions by 41%, its VOC emissions by 40% and its ammonia emissions by 17% compared to 1990.
The Protocol also sets tight limit values for specific emission sources (e.g. combustion plant, electricity production, dry cleaning, cars and lorries) and requires best available techniques to be used to keep emissions down. VOC emissions from such products as paints or aerosols will also have to be cut. Finally, farmers will have to take specific measures to control ammonia emissions. Guidance documents adopted together with the Protocol provide a wide range of abatement techniques and economic instruments for the reduction of emissions in the relevant sectors, including transport.
The Protocol was amended in 2012 to include national emission reduction commitments to be achieved in 2020 and beyond. Several of the Protocol’s technical annexes were revised with updated sets of emission limit values for both key stationary sources and mobile sources, as well as with emission ceilings for fine particulate matter. The revised Protocol also introduced flexibilities to facilitate accession of new Parties, mainly countries in Southern and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Original text of the Protocol
EB decision 2012/1 on amendment of annex I to the Protocol
EB decision 2012/2 on amendment of the text of and annexes II to IX to the Protocol and the addition of new annexes X and XI
EB decision 2012/3 on adjustments under the Protocol to emission reduction commitments or to inventories for the purposes of comparing total national emissions with them
EB decision 2012/4 on provisional application of amendment to the Protocol
Consolidated text of the amended Protocol