|The Executive Body adopted the
Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication
and Ground-level Ozone in Gothenburg (Sweden)
on 30 November 1999.
sets emission ceilings for 2010 for four pollutants:
sulphur, NOx, VOCs and ammonia. These
ceilings were negotiated on the basis of scientific
assessments of pollution effects and abatement
options. Parties whose emissions have
a more severe environmental or health impact
and whose emissions are relatively cheap to
reduce will have to make the biggest cuts.
Once the Protocol is fully implemented, Europes
sulphur emissions should be cut by at least
63%, its NOx emissions by 41%, its VOC emissions
by 40% and its ammonia emissions by 17% compared
The Protocol also sets tight limit values
for specific emission sources (e.g. combustion
plant, electricity production, dry cleaning,
cars and lorries) and requires best available
techniques to be used to keep emissions down.
VOC emissions from such products as paints
or aerosols will also have to be cut. Finally,
farmers will have to take specific measures
to control ammonia emissions. Guidance
documents adopted together with the Protocol
provide a wide range of abatement techniques
and economic instruments for the reduction
of emissions in the relevant sectors, including
It has been estimated that once the Protocol
is implemented, the area in Europe with excessive
levels of acidification will shrink from 93
million hectares in 1990 to 15 million hectares.
That with excessive levels of eutrophication
will fall from 165 million hectares in 1990
to 108 million hectares. The number of days
with excessive ozone levels will be halved.
Consequently, it is estimated that life-years
lost as a result of the chronic effects of
ozone exposure will be about 2,300,000 lower
in 2010 than in 1990, and there will be approximately
47,500 fewer premature deaths resulting from
ozone and particulate matter in the air. The
exposure of vegetation to excessive ozone
levels will be 44% down on 1990.