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List of Abbreviations

Besides the common abbreviations, symbols and terms, the following have been used:


In tables on the status of ratification 

 

R

Ratification

"Ratification" defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.

[Arts.2 (1) (b), 14 (1) and 16, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

Ac

Accession

"Accession" is the act whereby a state accepts the offer or the opportunity to become a party to a treaty already negotiated and signed by other states. It has the same legal effect as ratification. Accession usually occurs after the treaty has entered into force. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his function as depositary, has also accepted accessions to some conventions before their entry into force. The conditions under which accession may occur and the procedure involved depend on the provisions of the treaty. A treaty might provide for the accession of all other states or for a limited and defined number of states. In the absence of such a provision, accession can only occur where the negotiating states were agreed or subsequently agree on it in the case of the state in question.

[Arts.2 (1) (b) and 15, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

Ap

Approval

The instruments of "acceptance" or "approval" of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty. In the practice of certain states acceptance and approval have been used instead of ratification when, at a national level, constitutional law does not require the treaty to be ratified by the head of state.

[Arts.2 (1) (b) and 14 (2), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

At

Acceptance

The instruments of "acceptance" or "approval" of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty. In the practice of certain states acceptance and approval have been used instead of ratification when, at a national level, constitutional law does not require the treaty to be ratified by the head of state.

[Arts.2 (1) (b) and 14 (2), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969]

Sc

Succession

 

(1) With declaration upon signature.
(2) With declaration upon ratification.
(3) For the Kingdom in Europe.
(4) Including the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, the United Kingdom Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekhelia on the Island of Cyprus.
(5) Including the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, the Isle of Man.
(6) Not applying to the Faeroe Islands and Greenland.


In the flow chart 

ICP

International Cooperative Programme

TF

Task Force

WG

Working Group

CC

Coordination Centre

CCC

Chemical Coordinating Centre

CCE

Coordination Center for Effects

MRC 

Main research Centre

MSC-E

Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-East

MSC-W

Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West 

PC 

Programme Centre

PCC

Programme Coordination Centre 

In the legal texts of the convention and its protocols
 
Currencies

DM

Deutsche mark

ECU

European currency unit

US$

United States dollar

Organizations, centres and programmes

ECE 

Economic Commission for Europe

EMEP

Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

MSC-E

Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-East

MSC-W

Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West

SAPRC 

Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, Los Angeles, United States of America

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

 

Weights and measures

C

Celsius

g

Gram

GJ

Gigajoule

h

Hour

K

Kelvin

kg

Kilogram

km

Kilometre

km2

Square kilometre

kPa

Kilopascal

kt

Kilotonne

kWel

Kilowatt (electric)

kWh

Kilowatt-hour

m2

quare metre

m3

Cubic metre

mg 

Milligram

MW

Megawatt

MWel 

Megawatt (electric)

MWth

Megawatt (thermal)

t

Tonne

 


 

Technical and scientific abbreviations

A B C D E F G H I J L K M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

AC

Activated carbon process

AD

Air dried

AS 

Ammonia scrubbing

BBF

Biased-burner-firing

BE

Bitumen emulsion

BFBC

Bubbling fluidized bed combustion

BOOS

Burner-out-of-service

CCGT

Combined cycle gas turbine

CFBC

Circulating fluidized bed combustion

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon

CNG 

Compressed natural gas

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2 

Carbon dioxide

DBB

Dry bottom boiler

EBDS

Electron beam dry scrubbing

EGR

Exhaust gas recirculation

FBC

Fluidized bed combustion

FGD

Flue gas desulphurization

FGR

Flue gas recirculation

HDV

Heavy-duty vehicle

IC

engine Internal combustion engine

IFNR

In-furnace-NOx-reduction reburning

IGCC

Integrated gasification combined cycle

LEA

Low excess air combustion

LNB

Low NOx burner

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas

LWS

Lime/limestone wet scrubbing

MIR

Maximum incremental reactivity

NH3

Ammonia

NO

Nitrogen oxide

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

N2O

Dinitrogen monoxide

O3 

Ozone

OBD 

On-board diagnostic system

OFA

Over fire air combustion

PF

Pulverized fuel

PFBC

Pressurized fluidized bed combustion

POCP 

Photochemical ozone creation potential

ppb

Parts per billion

ppmv

Parts per million by volume

RAP

Reduced air preheat

RVP

Reid vapour pressure

SCR 

Selective catalytic reduction

SDA

Spray dry absorption

SNCR

Selective non-catalytic reduction

SO2

Sulphur dioxide

SO3

Sulphur trioxide

SOx 

Sulphur oxides

SOMA 

Sulphur oxides management area

STP

Standard temperature (0 C) and pressure (1.013 x 105 Pa)

TOMA

Tropospheric ozone management area

UV

Ultraviolet

VOC

Volatile organic compound

WBB

Wet bottom boiler

WL

Wellman Lord process

WSA

Wet sulphuric acid catalytic process

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