• English

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

For the user's convenience, as well as to lighten the text, the Economic Survey of Europe includes a set of appendix tables showing time series for the main economic indicators over a longer period. The data are presented in two sections, following the structure of the text: Appendix A provides macroeconomic indicators for the market economies of western Europe and North America for 1984-1998, Appendix B does the same for the east European countries, the Baltic states and the Commonwealth of Independent States for 1980-1998.

Data for some of the ECE transition economies are preliminary because re-estimated historical series are not yet available for all countries, and longer time series could in some instances be obtained only by splicing older data with the new statistics (as explained in the notes to the tables).

Data were compiled from international and national statistical sources. Regional aggregations are ECE secretariat estimates based on 1996 weights as noted in the footnotes to the tables. The figures for 1998 are based on data available to the secretariat at mid-October 1999.

In June 1996 the European Council decided to replace the previous European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (ESA) dating from 1979 (ESA79) by a new, more comprehensive system, ESA95. The ESA95 is fully compatible with the internationally agreed System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA93), which was already adopted by some ECE member countries.

Following these decisions, an increasing number of countries have started reporting national accounts data according to SNA93 or ESA95 definitions. In the appendix tables A.1 to A.11, mention is made of the countries and the periods for which the series comply with SNA93 or ESA95 definitions. The SNA93 and ESA95 introduce major methodological improvements and extend the coverage of the series compared with the previous national accounts systems - SNA68, ESA70 and ESA79. A note on the main differences will be included in a forthcoming issue of the Survey.

 

APPENDIX TABLE A.1

Real GDP in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

2.6

2.6

3.0

3.0

4.1

3.4

3.4

1.7

1.4

0.1

2.4

2.6

1.9

2.7

2.6

4 major countries

2.3

2.5

2.9

2.6

4.3

3.3

3.1

1.9

1.3

-0.3

2.7

2.2

1.3

2.0

2.2

France a

1.2

1.7

2.4

1.9

4.5

4.2

2.7

1.0

1.5

-0.9

2.1

1.7

1.1

2.0

3.2

Germany a b

2.8

2.0

2.3

1.5

3.7

3.6

5.7

5.1

2.2

-1.1

2.3

1.7

0.8

1.5

2.2

Italy a

2.6

2.8

2.8

3.1

3.9

2.9

2.0

1.4

0.8

-0.9

2.2

2.9

0.9

1.5

1.3

United Kingdom a

2.4

3.8

4.2

4.4

5.2

2.1

0.6

-1.5

0.1

2.3

4.4

2.8

2.6

3.5

2.2

17 smaller countries

3.1

2.8

3.3

3.9

3.7

3.5

4.0

1.5

1.7

0.8

1.8

3.4

3.1

4.1

3.5

Austria

0.3

2.2

2.3

1.7

3.2

4.2

4.6

3.4

1.3

0.5

2.4

1.7

2.0

2.5

3.3

Belgium a

2.5

1.0

1.8

2.7

4.6

3.6

2.8

2.0

1.6

-1.5

3.0

2.6

0.9

3.2

2.9

Cyprus

8.8

4.7

3.8

7.0

8.5

7.9

7.4

0.6

9.8

0.7

5.9

6.1

2.0

2.5

5.0

Denmark a

4.4

4.3

3.6

0.3

1.2

0.3

1.2

1.4

1.3

0.8

5.8

3.7

2.8

3.1

2.7

Finland a

3.0

3.4

2.4

4.1

4.9

5.7

-0.5

-5.9

-3.2

-0.6

3.7

3.9

4.1

5.6

5.6

Greece

2.8

3.1

1.6

-0.5

4.5

3.8

-

3.1

0.7

-1.6

2.0

2.1

2.4

3.2

3.7

Iceland

4.1

3.3

6.3

8.5

-0.1

0.3

1.2

1.1

-3.3

1.0

3.7

1.0

5.6

4.4

5.0

Ireland a

4.4

3.1

-0.4

4.7

5.2

5.8

8.5

1.9

3.3

2.6

5.8

9.5

7.7

10.7

8.9

Israel

2.2

3.6

3.6

6.2

3.4

1.4

6.3

5.7

6.8

3.4

6.9

8.3

4.6

2.9

2.2

Luxembourg

6.2

2.9

7.8

2.3

10.4

9.8

2.2

6.1

4.5

8.7

4.2

3.8

3.0

3.7

5.7

Malta

0.9

2.6

3.9

4.1

8.4

8.2

6.3

6.3

4.7

4.5

5.7

6.2

4.0

4.8

4.1

Netherlands a

3.3

3.1

2.8

1.4

2.6

4.7

4.1

2.3

2.0

0.8

3.2

2.3

3.0

3.8

3.7

Norway a

5.9

5.2

3.6

2.0

-0.1

0.9

2.0

3.1

3.3

2.7

5.5

3.8

4.9

4.3

2.1

Portugal

-1.9

2.8

4.1

6.4

7.5

5.1

4.4

2.3

2.5

-1.1

2.2

2.9

3.2

3.7

3.5

Spain a

1.5

1.7

3.2

5.6

5.2

4.7

3.7

2.3

0.7

-1.2

2.3

2.7

2.3

3.7

4.0

Sweden a

4.0

1.9

2.3

3.1

2.3

2.4

1.4

-1.1

-1.4

-2.2

3.9

3.7

1.3

1.8

2.6

Switzerland

3.0

3.4

1.6

0.7

3.1

4.3

3.7

-0.8

-0.1

-0.5

0.5

0.5

0.3

1.7

2.1

Turkey

6.7

4.2

7.0

9.5

2.1

0.3

9.3

0.9

6.0

8.0

-5.5

7.2

7.0

7.5

2.8

North America

6.7

3.9

3.0

3.0

3.9

3.3

1.2

-1.0

2.6

2.3

3.6

2.3

3.3

3.9

3.8

Canada a

5.7

5.4

2.6

4.1

4.9

2.5

0.3

-1.9

0.9

2.3

4.7

2.8

1.7

4.0

3.1

United States

6.8

3.7

3.0

2.9

3.8

3.4

1.3

-1.0

2.7

2.3

3.5

2.3

3.4

3.9

3.9

Total above

4.7

3.2

3.0

3.0

4.0

3.3

2.3

0.3

2.0

1.2

3.0

2.5

2.6

3.3

3.2

Japan

3.9

4.4

2.9

4.2

6.2

4.8

5.1

3.8

1.0

0.3

0.6

1.5

5.0

1.4

-2.8

Total above, including Japan

4.5

3.4

3.0

3.2

4.3

3.6

2.7

0.9

1.8

1.1

2.6

2.3

3.0

3.0

2.3

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.8

4.2

3.5

3.1

1.8

1.2

-0.3

2.8

2.4

1.6

2.5

2.7

Euro area

2.1

2.2

2.6

2.6

4.2

3.9

3.8

2.6

1.5

-0.8

2.4

2.3

1.4

2.3

2.7

Source: National statistics.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel. Growth rates of regional aggregates have been calculated as weighted averages of growth rates in individual countries. Weights were derived from 1996 GDP data converted from national currency units into dollars using 1996 purchasing power parities.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

 

APPENDIX TABLE A.2

Real private consumption expenditure in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.6

2.4

4.0

3.4

3.7

3.1

3.5

2.3

1.8

0.1

1.4

1.9

2.2

2.3

2.8

4 major countries

1.5

2.4

4.3

3.7

4.1

3.1

3.1

2.3

1.7

-0.2

1.6

1.7

1.5

1.7

2.7

France a

-0.2

1.4

3.2

1.7

2.3

3.0

3.0

0.7

0.9

-0.4

1.2

1.2

1.3

0.2

3.4

Germany a b

1.8

1.7

3.5

3.4

2.7

2.8

5.4

5.6

2.8

0.2

1.0

2.1

0.8

0.7

2.3

Italy a

2.5

3.1

4.2

4.3

4.6

3.6

2.1

2.9

1.9

-3.7

1.5

1.7

0.9

2.5

1.8

United Kingdom a

1.9

3.9

6.6

5.4

7.6

3.3

0.7

-1.7

0.4

2.9

2.9

1.7

3.6

3.9

3.4

17 smaller countries

1.8

2.4

3.6

2.9

2.8

3.0

4.1

2.4

2.0

0.7

1.1

2.4

3.3

3.4

3.2

Austria

-1.3

1.9

2.2

2.9

3.3

3.7

3.8

2.8

3.0

0.7

1.8

2.9

2.0

0.7

1.7

Belgium a

0.6

2.0

3.1

1.8

3.7

3.9

3.2

3.0

2.2

-1.0

2.0

0.8

1.1

2.3

3.4

Cyprus

4.5

5.9

1.7

5.5

10.5

6.9

9.0

9.9

3.2

-4.8

4.2

11.1

3.2

2.7

7.0

Denmark a

3.4

5.0

5.7

-1.5

-1.0

-0.3

0.3

1.8

2.6

1.4

7.1

2.6

2.9

3.7

3.5

Finland a

3.1

3.7

4.0

5.2

5.1

4.3

-0.8

-3.5

-4.5

-3.2

2.5

4.3

3.5

2.9

5.5

Greece

1.7

3.9

0.7

1.2

3.6

6.1

2.6

2.8

2.4

-0.8

2.0

2.8

1.9

2.6

1.8

Iceland

3.7

4.2

6.9

16.2

-3.8

-4.2

0.5

4.1

-4.5

-4.5

1.9

4.2

6.4

6.0

11.0

Ireland a

2.0

4.6

2.0

3.3

4.5

6.5

1.4

1.8

2.9

2.9

4.3

3.7

6.5

7.3

7.4

Israel

-6.9

0.7

15.1

8.9

4.5

0.4

5.6

7.2

8.0

7.3

9.5

5.8

5.5

4.2

4.1

Luxembourg

1.4

2.7

5.7

4.6

4.6

5.1

5.7

6.3

-0.9

1.7

2.4

2.4

1.9

2.8

3.8

Malta

4.0

5.0

1.4

0.5

9.0

9.2

3.8

3.8

4.3

0.8

2.3

10.5

7.1

1.6

2.5

Netherlands a

1.2

2.8

2.6

2.7

0.8

3.5

4.2

3.1

2.5

1.0

2.2

2.0

4.0

2.7

4.1

Norway a

3.2

9.4

5.0

-0.8

-2.0

-0.6

0.7

1.5

2.2

2.2

4.0

3.4

5.3

3.7

3.1

Portugal

-2.9

0.7

5.6

5.3

6.9

2.6

5.9

3.7

4.3

1.5

2.2

1.6

2.5

3.0

5.3

Spain a

-0.1

2.0

3.3

5.8

4.9

5.7

3.6

2.9

2.2

-2.2

0.9

1.6

2.0

2.9

4.1

Sweden a

1.5

2.7

4.4

4.6

2.4

1.2

-0.4

0.9

-1.4

-3.1

1.8

0.7

1.4

1.6

2.4

Switzerland

1.3

1.6

2.3

2.2

1.7

2.3

1.2

1.6

0.1

-0.9

1.0

0.6

0.7

1.3

2.3

Turkey

8.1

-0.6

5.8

-0.3

1.2

-1.0

13.1

2.7

3.2

8.6

-5.4

4.8

8.5

8.4

0.1

North America

5.1

4.7

4.0

3.2

4.0

2.4

1.6

-0.7

2.7

2.8

3.3

2.6

3.1

3.5

4.7

Canada a

4.5

5.2

4.0

4.1

4.4

3.6

1.3

-1.4

1.8

1.8

3.1

2.1

2.5

4.2

2.8

United States

5.2

4.7

4.0

3.1

3.9

2.3

1.7

-0.6

2.8

2.9

3.3

2.7

3.2

3.4

4.9

Total above

3.4

3.6

4.0

3.3

3.8

2.8

2.5

0.8

2.2

1.5

2.3

2.3

2.6

2.9

3.8

Japan

2.6

3.3

3.5

4.2

5.3

4.8

4.4

2.5

2.1

1.2

1.9

2.1

2.9

1.0

-1.1

Total above, including Japan

3.2

3.5

3.9

3.4

4.1

3.1

2.8

1.1

2.2

1.4

2.3

2.2

2.7

2.6

3.0

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.3

2.5

4.0

3.7

3.9

3.4

3.1

2.3

1.7

-0.4

1.7

1.8

1.8

2.0

3.0

Euro area

1.1

2.1

3.5

3.5

3.4

3.5

3.7

3.2

2.0

-1.0

1.4

1.8

1.4

1.6

2.9

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.3

Real general government consumption expenditure in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.8

3.0

2.9

2.7

2.2

1.3

2.9

2.4

2.5

1.3

0.7

0.9

2.1

0.3

1.4

4 major countries

2.0

2.0

2.3

1.7

2.2

0.2

2.3

1.8

2.7

0.8

1.1

0.3

1.9

-0.4

0.9

France a

2.2

2.6

2.6

2.0

4.1

1.5

1.9

2.7

3.8

4.6

0.7

-0.1

2.3

1.7

1.1

Germany a b

2.5

2.1

2.5

1.5

2.1

-1.6

2.2

0.4

5.0

0.1

2.4

1.5

2.1

-1.1

0.5

Italy a

2.1

3.1

2.5

3.2

2.7

0.9

2.5

1.7

0.6

-0.2

-0.9

-2.2

1.4

-0.5

1.2

United Kingdom a

1.0

-0.1

1.6

-

-

0.8

2.5

2.9

0.5

-0.8

1.4

1.6

1.7

-1.4

1.0

17 smaller countries

1.4

5.1

4.0

4.5

2.0

3.5

4.1

3.6

2.1

2.3

-

2.1

2.5

1.6

2.4

Austria

0.8

1.3

1.8

0.2

1.1

1.4

1.3

2.2

2.0

2.7

2.5

-

0.6

-3.9

1.3

Belgium a

0.6

2.5

1.4

2.8

-0.7

0.8

-0.4

3.9

1.4

-0.2

1.5

1.0

2.3

-0.5

2.4

Cyprus

3.8

3.7

3.6

5.3

10.5

1.9

17.4

3.9

13.8

-14.3

4.1

2.9

11.9

3.4

7.7

Denmark a

-0.4

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.9

-0.8

-0.3

0.7

0.9

4.1

2.9

2.2

3.2

1.0

3.0

Finland a

2.7

4.5

3.1

4.3

2.3

2.3

3.9

2.0

-2.3

-4.3

0.3

2.0

2.5

2.9

1.4

Greece

3.0

3.2

-0.8

0.9

5.7

5.5

0.6

-1.5

-3.1

2.6

-1.1

5.7

1.0

-0.4

-0.6

Iceland

0.6

6.5

7.3

6.5

4.7

3.0

4.4

3.2

-0.8

2.3

3.7

1.3

1.0

2.6

3.0

Ireland a

-0.7

1.8

2.6

-4.8

-5.0

-1.3

5.4

2.8

3.0

-0.4

4.1

2.9

2.8

4.8

5.9

Israel

5.8

2.9

-9.7

18.3

-2.5

-8.6

7.7

4.1

1.4

4.2

-0.2

1.8

5.1

1.9

2.0

Luxembourg

2.2

2.0

2.7

4.7

4.9

3.9

3.1

3.9

1.5

3.7

2.0

2.2

3.3

3.9

4.0

Malta

-2.5

5.6

4.4

9.1

6.0

12.7

5.7

10.9

8.9

6.0

6.4

8.5

8.4

-1.1

2.3

Netherlands a

-

2.4

3.6

2.6

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.7

1.5

0.6

0.8

-0.4

3.3

3.3

Norway a

0.7

2.3

1.9

4.6

-0.1

1.9

4.9

4.3

5.3

2.2

1.4

0.3

2.8

2.8

3.7

Portugal

0.2

6.4

7.2

3.8

8.6

6.6

5.4

10.3

1.1

0.9

2.1

2.2

2.0

2.5

3.5

Spain a

2.5

6.0

5.4

8.9

4.0

8.3

6.6

5.6

4.0

2.4

-0.3

1.8

1.3

1.9

1.4

Sweden a

2.2

2.2

1.3

1.0

0.6

2.1

2.6

2.8

-

0.2

-0.8

-0.7

0.8

-1.0

1.0

Switzerland

1.7

3.4

3.4

1.7

4.5

5.4

5.4

3.5

0.7

-0.1

2.0

-0.1

2.0

0.6

-0.2

Turkey

1.9

14.1

9.2

9.4

-1.1

0.8

8.0

3.7

3.6

8.6

-5.5

6.8

8.6

4.1

5.0

North America

1.6

4.8

4.3

2.1

2.2

2.7

2.4

1.1

-

-0.3

0.3

-0.3

0.5

1.2

1.1

Canada a

1.1

4.3

1.9

1.4

4.6

2.8

3.7

2.8

1.0

0.1

-1.2

-0.5

-1.1

-0.5

1.7

United States

1.6

4.8

4.6

2.2

2.0

2.7

2.3

1.0

-0.1

-0.3

0.4

-0.3

0.7

1.3

1.1

Total above

1.7

3.9

3.6

2.4

2.2

2.0

2.7

1.8

1.2

0.5

0.5

0.3

1.3

0.7

1.3

Japan

2.3

0.3

5.1

1.6

2.3

2.0

1.5

2.0

2.0

2.4

2.4

3.3

1.9

1.5

0.7

Total above, including Japan

1.8

3.3

3.9

2.3

2.2

2.0

2.5

1.8

1.3

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.4

0.8

1.2

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.8

2.5

2.6

2.3

2.3

1.2

2.5

2.3

2.4

1.0

1.0

0.7

1.7

-

1.2

Euro area

2.0

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

1.2

2.6

2.2

3.1

1.3

0.9

0.4

1.8

0.3

1.3

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.4

Real gross domestic fixed capital formation in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.5

2.9

4.3

7.2

8.0

6.5

4.5

-0.2

-0.2

-4.0

1.8

3.8

2.7

4.0

5.2

4 major countries

2.5

1.7

3.3

4.9

8.3

6.0

4.0

-

0.7

-5.2

2.5

2.2

1.2

2.1

4.7

France a

-1.5

3.7

5.8

5.9

9.3

7.1

3.3

-1.5

-1.6

-6.4

1.5

2.0

-

0.5

5.7

Germany a b

0.1

-0.5

3.3

1.8

4.4

6.3

8.5

6.0

4.5

-4.5

4.0

-0.7

-1.1

0.5

1.4

Italy a

3.4

0.5

2.0

4.4

6.9

4.4

4.0

1.0

-1.4

-10.9

0.1

6.0

2.3

0.9

3.5

United Kingdom a

9.3

4.0

2.1

8.9

14.8

5.9

-2.3

-8.7

-0.7

0.8

3.6

2.9

4.9

7.5

9.9

17 smaller countries

-0.3

5.3

6.2

11.6

7.4

7.5

5.6

-0.6

-1.7

-1.7

0.7

6.8

5.6

7.5

6.1

Austria

0.1

6.9

2.4

4.4

6.8

6.3

6.6

6.3

0.1

-2.0

8.4

1.2

2.5

2.8

4.7

Belgium a

2.5

3.9

3.2

6.2

15.7

12.6

8.5

-4.1

1.7

-3.1

-0.1

5.5

0.9

6.3

3.6

Cyprus

21.5

-7.7

-7.1

4.5

10.6

20.0

-2.8

-1.6

16.2

-12.8

-2.5

-1.7

7.8

-8.4

0.6

Denmark a

12.9

12.6

17.1

-3.8

-6.6

0.2

-0.9

-2.7

-1.0

-1.9

7.4

13.6

4.8

10.4

6.9

Finland a

-2.1

2.2

-0.4

4.9

9.8

14.8

-3.2

-18.6

-17.3

-16.7

-2.3

10.8

8.4

11.7

9.0

Greece

-5.7

5.2

-6.2

-5.1

8.9

7.1

5.0

4.8

-3.2

-3.5

-2.7

4.2

8.8

9.6

9.8

Iceland

9.4

1.0

-1.6

18.8

-0.2

-7.9

3.0

2.0

-11.3

-11.4

-1.1

-2.8

26.5

11.2

23.4

Ireland a

-2.5

-7.7

-2.8

-1.1

5.2

10.1

13.4

-7.0

-

-5.1

11.8

14.1

16.3

17.3

15.9

Israel

-11.9

-9.2

7.4

6.1

1.6

-2.2

25.3

41.9

5.2

5.3

8.4

6.6

7.7

-2.4

-4.0

Luxembourg

0.1

-9.5

31.0

17.9

15.0

7.0

2.7

31.6

-9.0

28.4

-14.9

3.5

-1.7

8.0

9.7

Malta

-7.0

-4.0

-8.7

30.7

6.1

1.0

17.9

-

-0.2

11.1

8.5

17.8

-8.4

-4.5

-6.0

Netherlands a

5.8

7.0

6.9

0.9

4.5

4.9

1.6

0.2

0.6

-2.8

2.2

4.8

6.3

5.9

5.2

Norway a

1.0

-4.0

7.6

0.3

-1.8

-6.9

-10.8

-0.4

-3.1

4.3

4.5

3.4

9.9

15.1

8.1

Portugal

-17.4

-3.5

10.9

18.0

14.8

4.4

7.6

3.5

4.8

-6.0

3.4

4.8

5.7

11.3

9.7

Spain a

-6.9

6.1

9.9

14.0

13.9

13.6

6.6

1.6

-4.4

-10.5

2.5

8.2

2.0

5.1

9.2

Sweden a

7.1

5.2

0.3

8.2

6.6

11.3

1.3

-8.9

-10.8

-17.2

5.9

9.2

5.1

-2.1

9.2

Switzerland

4.7

2.8

5.4

4.0

8.1

5.3

3.8

-2.9

-6.6

-2.7

6.5

1.8

-2.4

1.5

4.4

Turkey

0.9

11.5

8.4

45.1

-1.0

2.2

15.9

0.4

6.4

26.4

-16.0

9.1

14.1

14.8

-2.4

North America

14.5

6.4

2.2

1.2

2.2

2.3

-1.6

-6.4

4.6

4.5

6.6

4.5

7.7

7.7

9.1

Canada a

2.5

10.3

5.4

10.7

9.8

5.9

-3.6

-3.5

-1.3

-2.7

7.4

-1.9

6.5

13.9

3.6

United States

15.6

6.1

1.9

0.4

1.5

2.0

-1.4

-6.6

5.2

5.1

6.5

5.0

7.8

7.1

9.6

Total above

8.0

4.7

3.3

4.2

5.1

4.4

1.5

-3.3

2.3

0.2

4.2

4.1

5.2

5.8

7.2

Japan

4.3

5.0

4.8

9.1

11.5

8.2

8.5

3.3

-1.5

-2.0

-0.8

1.7

11.1

-1.9

-8.8

Total above, including Japan

7.5

4.7

3.5

5.0

6.1

5.0

2.6

-2.3

1.7

-0.1

3.4

3.8

6.2

4.6

4.6

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.5

2.6

4.1

5.4

8.6

6.9

4.2

-0.2

-0.3

-5.7

2.6

3.6

2.1

3.3

5.5

Euro area

-0.3

2.0

4.5

5.1

7.8

7.1

5.7

1.7

0.2

-6.8

2.3

3.3

1.3

2.3

4.4

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.5

Real total domestic demand in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.9

2.4

4.0

3.8

4.4

3.5

3.6

1.4

1.4

-0.8

1.8

2.6

1.7

2.6

3.4

4 major countries

2.0

2.1

3.8

3.4

4.9

3.1

2.9

1.6

1.5

-1.4

2.3

1.8

1.0

1.8

3.1

France a

0.2

1.9

3.8

2.6

4.5

3.7

2.8

0.5

0.8

-1.6

2.1

1.6

0.7

0.8

3.7

Germany a b

1.9

1.0

3.3

2.4

3.6

2.9

5.2

4.7

2.8

-1.0

2.2

1.7

0.3

0.7

2.5

Italy a

3.0

3.0

3.5

4.3

4.0

3.1

2.7

2.1

0.9

-5.1

1.7

2.0

0.4

2.5

2.6

United Kingdom a

2.9

3.0

4.9

4.9

8.1

2.9

-0.4

-2.7

0.8

2.2

3.4

1.8

3.0

3.8

4.1

17 smaller countries

1.9

2.9

4.4

4.5

3.6

4.3

4.8

1.2

1.2

0.3

0.7

4.2

2.9

4.1

4.1

Austria

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.6

3.2

3.0

4.3

3.6

1.4

0.8

3.6

1.9

1.7

1.8

2.6

Belgium a

2.1

1.0

2.6

3.4

4.8

4.2

2.9

1.8

1.8

-1.5

2.1

2.0

0.7

2.3

4.2

Cyprus

9.3

2.2

-1.5

5.6

11.3

9.7

6.3

5.1

9.3

-9.5

6.7

8.6

4.8

0.9

7.0

Denmark a

5.4

5.5

6.2

-2.3

-1.2

0.1

-0.5

0.1

1.6

0.5

7.2

5.5

2.5

4.6

4.6

Finland a

2.2

2.9

2.2

5.2

6.6

7.6

-1.3

-8.3

-6.1

-5.6

3.7

4.4

2.5

5.3

6.0

Greece

-0.2

5.6

-1.2

-1.5

7.3

5.3

2.8

3.7

-1.7

-0.9

1.1

4.2

3.0

3.4

3.2

Iceland

6.1

2.9

4.8

15.7

-0.9

-4.3

1.4

5.1

-5.3

-4.1

1.5

3.1

7.5

5.4

12.7

Ireland a

1.1

1.2

1.2

-0.2

2.1

7.3

6.4

0.1

-0.3

1.0

5.6

7.0

7.8

9.5

9.4

Israel

-1.9

-2.2

5.4

9.0

2.5

-2.8

9.3

12.1

5.3

6.8

5.3

6.7

5.5

1.2

1.9

Luxembourg

2.3

0.6

8.7

5.4

6.7

8.6

3.2

8.7

-1.5

9.7

-0.5

3.2

1.8

4.2

4.8

Malta

0.8

3.5

-

3.5

11.5

8.3

7.6

4.9

0.1

4.8

5.9

9.5

2.8

-0.1

-1.1

Netherlands a

1.8

3.7

3.8

1.4

1.8

4.7

3.5

1.9

1.6

-1.1

3.1

2.4

2.8

3.4

4.3

Norway a

4.9

5.6

7.4

-0.8

-3.0

-2.0

-0.5

0.8

1.5

3.1

4.0

4.3

4.2

6.4

5.4

Portugal

-6.5

1.0

8.2

9.9

10.7

3.3

6.1

4.2

5.0

-1.3

3.0

3.0

2.8

5.2

6.0

Spain a

-0.9

2.5

5.4

8.1

7.0

7.8

4.8

2.9

1.0

-4.2

1.3

3.2

1.8

3.2

5.0

Sweden a

3.4

3.8

2.1

4.3

2.8

3.7

0.9

-2.1

-1.8

-5.2

3.1

1.9

0.7

0.6

3.4

Switzerland

3.2

1.9

4.5

2.0

2.6

4.1

3.9

-0.6

-2.7

-1.0

2.7

1.8

0.4

1.3

4.1

Turkey

6.4

3.2

7.0

8.9

-1.3

1.5

14.6

-0.6

5.6

14.2

-12.5

11.4

7.6

9.0

0.7

North America

7.5

4.3

3.4

2.9

3.1

2.8

0.8

-1.5

2.7

2.8

3.9

2.0

3.4

4.3

4.8

Canada a

4.7

5.8

3.4

4.7

5.3

4.1

-

-1.4

0.9

1.4

3.2

1.7

1.6

5.7

2.2

United States

7.7

4.1

3.4

2.7

2.9

2.7

0.9

-1.6

2.8

3.0

3.9

2.1

3.6

4.2

5.1

Total above

4.7

3.3

3.7

3.3

3.8

3.2

2.2

-0.1

2.0

1.0

2.8

2.3

2.6

3.5

4.1

Japan

3.2

3.8

3.9

5.1

7.4

5.6

5.2

2.9

0.4

0.1

1.0

2.3

5.7

0.1

-3.5

Total above, including Japan

4.5

3.4

3.7

3.6

4.3

3.5

2.7

0.4

1.8

0.9

2.5

2.3

3.0

2.9

2.9

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.6

2.3

3.8

3.6

4.9

3.7

3.0

1.6

1.3

-1.6

2.4

2.1

1.3

2.2

3.5

Euro area

1.3

2.0

3.7

3.6

4.4

3.9

3.9

2.5

1.5

-2.3

2.1

2.1

0.9

1.9

3.4

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.6

Real exports of goods and services in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

9.0

4.6

1.1

5.1

6.3

7.4

6.4

4.7

4.3

2.1

9.3

8.1

5.8

9.9

5.4

4 major countries

7.8

5.3

0.9

3.2

5.0

8.5

7.6

5.2

3.5

1.1

8.5

8.5

4.3

9.1

4.4

France a

8.2

3.0

-

3.7

8.6

10.2

5.4

5.9

5.4

-

7.7

7.7

3.5

10.7

6.2

Germany a b

8.2

7.6

-0.6

0.4

5.5

10.2

11.0

12.6

-0.8

-5.5

7.6

5.7

5.1

10.9

7.0

Italy a

7.9

3.5

0.8

4.4

5.0

7.7

7.5

-1.4

7.3

9.0

9.8

12.6

0.9

5.2

1.1

United Kingdom a

6.6

6.0

4.5

5.9

0.6

4.8

4.9

-0.2

4.1

3.9

9.2

9.5

7.5

8.6

2.0

17 smaller countries

11.3

3.2

1.5

8.6

8.6

5.4

4.0

3.9

5.9

4.1

10.8

7.4

8.5

11.4

7.2

Austria

6.3

7.1

-2.3

3.1

10.2

11.3

7.9

5.9

1.7

-1.3

5.6

6.5

6.9

10.1

7.9

Belgium a

6.5

0.3

2.8

5.0

9.6

8.3

4.6

3.1

3.7

-0.4

8.4

5.7

1.2

7.1

3.4

Cyprus

15.1

-1.1

-1.7

13.7

13.5

16.8

7.9

-8.4

18.7

-1.3

7.9

4.6

3.9

2.5

-1.8

Denmark a

3.5

5.0

-

5.1

7.8

4.3

6.2

7.0

-0.5

0.1

8.2

3.5

5.0

4.4

1.4

Finland a

5.0

1.1

1.2

2.7

3.7

1.3

-0.1

-7.3

10.4

16.7

13.1

8.7

6.1

14.2

9.6

Greece

16.9

1.3

14.0

16.0

9.0

4.6

-4.0

3.7

10.5

-3.5

6.3

0.9

3.1

5.2

7.9

Iceland

2.4

11.1

5.9

3.3

-3.6

2.9

-

-5.9

-1.9

7.1

10.0

-2.2

10.0

5.6

2.6

Ireland a

16.6

6.6

2.9

13.7

9.0

10.3

8.7

5.3

13.5

9.1

14.7

19.6

11.8

17.0

20.5

Israel

13.6

10.2

5.6

10.2

-1.5

4.0

2.0

-2.6

14.1

9.9

12.8

8.4

6.6

7.7

6.3

Luxembourg

18.0

9.5

3.3

4.4

11.7

8.1

3.4

6.7

4.8

2.8

4.4

4.4

2.3

4.6

8.3

Malta

4.0

7.4

7.0

12.6

6.1

10.7

13.3

7.5

9.7

5.3

7.1

5.4

-5.9

4.0

7.8

Netherlands a

7.5

5.1

1.8

4.0

9.0

6.7

5.3

4.7

2.9

1.5

6.7

6.7

4.6

9.0

6.4

Norway a

7.9

7.2

2.2

1.1

6.4

11.0

8.6

6.1

5.2

3.2

8.7

4.3

9.3

5.7

0.5

Portugal

11.6

6.7

6.8

11.2

8.2

13.0

10.0

2.6

4.9

-3.6

8.7

9.1

10.2

8.4

7.9

Spain a

11.7

2.7

1.9

6.3

5.1

3.0

3.2

7.9

7.4

8.5

16.7

10.0

10.3

14.5

8.0

Sweden a

6.8

1.4

3.7

4.3

2.5

3.1

1.6

-2.3

2.3

7.6

13.6

11.5

3.9

12.7

6.9

Switzerland

7.5

8.0

-0.4

2.3

6.5

6.6

2.1

-2.1

3.0

1.5

1.8

1.6

2.5

9.0

4.6

Turkey

25.4

-1.9

-5.1

26.4

18.4

-0.3

2.5

3.7

11.0

7.7

15.2

8.0

22.0

19.1

10.5

North America

9.1

2.9

7.2

10.3

15.3

10.8

8.2

6.0

6.7

3.6

8.6

11.1

8.3

12.4

2.1

Canada a

18.6

5.5

5.2

3.3

9.5

1.3

4.7

2.3

7.9

10.9

13.1

9.0

5.8

8.5

8.2

United States

8.3

2.7

7.4

11.0

15.9

11.7

8.5

6.3

6.6

2.9

8.2

11.3

8.5

12.8

1.5

Total above

9.1

3.7

4.2

7.7

10.8

9.1

7.3

5.3

5.5

2.9

9.0

9.6

7.0

11.2

3.7

Japan

14.8

5.4

-5.7

-0.5

5.9

9.1

6.9

5.2

4.9

1.3

4.6

5.4

6.3

11.6

-2.3

Total above, including Japan

10.0

4.0

2.6

6.4

10.0

9.1

7.2

5.3

5.4

2.6

8.3

8.9

6.9

11.2

2.8

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

8.2

4.8

1.5

4.1

5.6

7.7

6.6

4.9

4.0

1.8

9.2

8.4

5.0

9.5

5.2

Euro area

8.5

4.7

0.5

3.4

6.6

8.6

7.4

6.2

4.0

1.4

9.1

8.3

4.5

9.8

5.8

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.7

Real imports of goods and services in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

6.8

4.2

5.2

9.0

7.7

8.6

8.0

3.7

4.1

-1.7

6.4

8.4

4.7

9.5

8.1

4 major countries

7.4

4.1

4.8

7.5

7.8

8.2

7.4

4.4

4.1

-4.4

7.3

7.0

3.2

8.4

8.0

France a

3.3

4.1

6.2

7.5

8.7

8.0

5.7

3.1

1.8

-3.7

8.2

8.0

1.6

6.2

8.7

Germany a b

5.2

4.5

2.7

4.2

5.1

8.3

10.3

13.1

1.5

-5.4

7.3

5.6

3.2

8.3

8.5

Italy a

12.2

5.0

4.3

12.0

6.1

9.0

11.5

2.3

7.4

-10.9

8.1

9.7

-0.8

10.1

6.0

United Kingdom a

9.9

2.5

6.9

7.9

12.8

7.4

0.5

-5.0

6.8

3.2

5.4

5.5

9.1

9.2

8.4

17 smaller countries

5.6

4.5

6.1

11.9

7.4

9.5

9.2

2.4

4.2

3.4

4.8

11.1

7.6

11.6

8.4

Austria

10.0

6.2

-2.9

5.4

10.4

8.4

7.3

6.5

1.8

-0.7

8.3

7.0

6.3

8.7

6.6

Belgium a

6.3

0.2

4.5

6.7

10.4

9.6

4.8

2.8

4.1

-0.4

7.2

5.0

1.0

6.0

5.3

Cyprus

16.4

-4.5

-11.0

5.5

13.4

20.4

5.8

2.2

18.2

-18.1

8.2

11.5

6.8

1.3

4.7

Denmark a

5.5

8.1

6.8

-2.0

1.5

4.2

1.5

3.9

0.2

-1.2

13.2

8.8

4.3

8.5

6.4

Finland a

1.6

6.4

2.6

9.2

11.1

8.9

-1.7

-13.5

0.6

1.3

12.8

7.9

6.3

11.4

9.4

Greece

0.2

12.8

3.8

16.6

8.0

10.6

8.7

6.0

-2.8

0.2

1.2

9.3

5.1

5.3

4.6

Iceland

9.1

9.4

0.9

23.3

-4.6

-10.3

1.0

5.7

-8.0

-8.6

4.2

3.8

16.6

8.5

22.1

Ireland a

9.9

3.2

5.6

6.2

4.9

13.5

5.1

2.2

7.9

7.0

15.1

16.1

12.0

16.1

23.2

Israel

-1.1

-3.7

11.2

19.6

-2.8

-5.0

9.5

16.0

8.8

14.1

10.9

4.5

8.2

1.9

1.7

Luxembourg

13.9

7.0

3.8

7.5

8.2

6.6

4.5

9.0

-0.8

2.8

-0.1

3.8

1.0

5.2

8.5

Malta

3.9

9.2

0.1

12.3

11.1

11.1

15.7

5.4

3.0

5.9

7.5

10.0

-5.9

-1.7

1.4

Netherlands a

5.0

6.3

3.5

4.2

7.6

6.7

4.2

4.1

2.1

-2.1

6.7

7.5

4.4

8.9

7.7

Norway a

5.8

8.9

11.8

-6.5

-2.4

2.2

2.5

0.2

0.7

4.4

4.9

5.6

8.0

12.0

9.1

Portugal

-4.4

1.4

16.9

23.1

18.0

6.1

14.0

7.3

10.7

-3.3

9.0

7.8

7.5

10.4

13.7

Spain a

-1.8

8.0

14.4

20.1

14.4

17.3

7.8

9.0

6.9

-5.2

11.3

11.0

8.1

12.5

11.8

Sweden a

5.3

6.9

4.5

7.7

5.3

7.4

0.7

-4.9

1.1

-2.5

12.3

7.3

2.9

11.7

9.7

Switzerland

8.3

3.7

8.1

6.2

5.2

5.9

2.6

-1.6

-4.2

0.1

7.9

5.1

2.7

8.1

9.4

Turkey

19.7

-6.6

-3.5

23.0

-4.5

6.9

33.0

-5.2

10.9

35.8

-21.9

29.6

20.5

22.4

2.2

North America

23.8

6.7

8.4

6.1

4.8

4.1

3.7

-0.3

7.4

9.0

11.6

8.6

9.0

13.9

10.2

Canada a

18.1

8.8

8.5

5.6

13.7

6.3

2.3

3.2

6.2

7.4

8.3

6.2

5.8

14.6

5.8

United States

24.3

6.5

8.4

6.1

3.9

3.9

3.9

-0.7

7.5

9.1

11.9

8.8

9.2

13.9

10.6

Total above

15.3

5.4

6.8

7.5

6.2

6.4

5.9

1.7

5.8

3.7

9.0

8.5

6.8

11.7

9.1

Japan

10.5

-1.4

1.9

9.5

20.9

18.6

7.9

-3.1

-0.7

-0.3

8.9

14.2

11.9

0.5

-7.7

Total above, including Japan

14.5

4.4

6.1

7.9

8.5

8.3

6.2

0.9

4.7

3.0

9.0

9.4

7.6

10.0

6.5

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

6.1

4.7

5.5

8.6

8.5

8.9

6.9

4.4

4.0

-3.7

7.9

7.5

3.9

8.9

8.4

Euro area

5.5

4.8

5.3

8.8

8.0

9.3

8.5

6.5

3.8

-5.3

8.3

7.8

2.9

8.8

8.5

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, France, Norway and United Kingdom; 1986 onwards for Belgium; 1989 onwards for Denmark; 1990 onwards for Finland and Italy; 1991 onwards for Ireland; 1992 onwards for Germany; 1994 onwards for Sweden; 1996 onwards for Netherlands and Spain.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.8

Industrial output in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

2.9

3.4

2.7

2.6

4.4

4.1

3.6

-0.1

-0.8

-2.6

4.5

4.0

0.8

4.2

3.3

4 major countries

1.9

3.3

2.0

1.8

4.9

3.9

3.7

-0.1

-1.3

-3.6

4.6

2.4

-

3.2

2.8

France

0.3

2.1

0.6

1.2

4.6

3.7

1.5

-1.2

-1.2

-3.9

4.0

2.1

0.2

3.8

4.5

Germany a

3.0

4.8

1.8

0.4

3.6

4.9

5.2

2.4

-2.3

-7.6

3.6

1.2

0.6

3.5

4.2

Italy

3.3

0.1

4.1

2.6

6.9

3.9

6.3

-0.4

-1.3

-2.1

6.2

5.0

-1.9

3.8

1.1

United Kingdom

-

5.5

1.4

4.1

5.2

2.1

-

-3.3

0.4

2.1

5.2

1.8

1.0

1.0

0.7

14 smaller countries

4.8

3.5

3.9

4.0

3.5

4.6

3.4

-0.1

0.3

-0.6

4.3

7.2

2.5

6.3

4.2

Austria

4.9

4.7

1.2

1.0

4.4

5.8

6.8

1.9

-1.2

-1.5

4.0

4.9

1.0

6.0

8.3

Belgium

2.5

2.5

0.8

2.1

5.8

3.4

1.5

-1.9

-0.4

-5.1

2.1

6.5

0.5

4.7

3.4

Denmark

10.7

4.5

7.3

-3.0

2.2

2.0

3.1

-

3.4

-2.6

10.0

4.6

2.0

5.6

2.2

Finland

4.8

3.0

1.8

5.0

3.2

3.6

-0.6

-8.7

1.3

5.6

11.3

7.2

3.6

10.2

6.8

Greece

2.3

3.3

-0.3

-1.2

5.1

1.8

-2.5

-1.0

-1.1

-2.9

1.3

1.8

1.2

1.3

7.1

Ireland

9.9

3.4

2.2

8.9

10.7

11.6

4.7

3.3

9.1

5.6

11.9

18.9

8.0

15.3

15.7

Israel

..

..

3.6

4.8

-3.2

-1.6

8.1

6.7

8.2

6.7

7.5

8.4

14.2

16.2

..

Luxembourg

11.7

-1.1

1.9

-0.6

8.7

7.8

2.6

0.3

-0.8

-4.3

5.9

1.4

-1.9

7.2

1.1

Netherlands

5.0

4.8

0.2

1.1

0.1

5.1

2.4

1.8

-0.2

-1.1

4.9

4.8

3.8

2.6

1.1

Norway

6.3

5.7

4.1

6.6

2.9

9.3

2.5

2.5

5.6

3.6

7.0

5.9

5.4

3.4

-0.6

Portugal

2.5

-1.3

7.3

4.4

3.8

6.7

9.0

-

-2.3

-5.2

-0.2

11.6

5.3

2.6

5.7

Spain

0.9

1.8

3.3

4.6

3.1

5.1

-0.3

-0.7

-3.0

-4.7

7.6

4.8

-1.3

6.9

5.5

Sweden

5.6

2.9

0.2

2.8

2.9

2.9

0.3

-5.2

-1.7

-0.4

11.5

9.8

1.0

6.5

4.6

Switzerland

2.6

5.6

3.8

1.2

7.8

1.5

4.8

0.5

-1.0

-1.8

4.3

2.0

-

4.7

3.5

Turkey

11.0

5.9

11.7

10.5

1.6

3.6

9.5

2.7

5.0

8.0

-6.2

12.7

7.5

10.7

1.2

North America

9.2

1.9

1.0

4.6

4.7

1.6

-0.4

-2.1

3.0

3.5

5.5

4.9

4.2

6.0

3.5

Canada

12.6

5.4

-0.6

4.4

6.1

-0.4

-2.8

-3.8

1.1

4.5

6.5

4.5

1.7

5.5

2.3

United States

8.9

1.6

1.2

4.6

4.5

1.8

-0.2

-2.0

3.1

3.5

5.4

4.9

4.5

6.0

3.6

Total above

5.9

2.7

1.9

3.5

4.5

2.9

1.6

-1.1

1.0

0.3

5.0

4.4

2.5

5.1

3.4

Japan

9.3

3.7

-0.2

3.4

9.4

5.8

4.2

1.9

-5.7

-3.5

1.3

3.3

2.3

3.5

-6.5

Total above, including Japan

6.5

2.8

1.5

3.5

5.4

3.4

2.1

-0.6

-0.2

-0.4

4.3

4.2

2.4

4.8

1.6

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union

2.4

3.1

2.1

2.1

4.5

4.1

3.2

-0.3

-1.2

-3.3

5.1

3.5

0.4

3.9

3.4

Euro area

2.6

2.7

2.3

1.9

4.5

4.6

4.0

0.4

-1.5

-4.4

4.8

3.7

0.3

4.3

3.9

Source: National statistics; OECD, Main Economic Indicators (Paris), various issues.

Note: Growth rates of regional aggregates have been calculated as weighted averages of growth rates in individual countries. Weights were derived from GDP originating in industry in 1995. Data were converted from national currency units into dollars using GDP purchasing power parities.

a West Germany 1984-1991.

APPENDIX TABLE A.9

Total employment in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

0.6

0.8

1.1

1.3

1.6

1.8

1.6

0.4

-1.2

-1.7

0.1

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.5

4 major countries

1.0

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.6

1.7

1.5

-

-1.5

-1.8

-0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.7

France a

-0.3

-0.9

0.2

0.6

0.9

1.7

0.9

-0.1

-0.7

-1.7

-0.3

0.5

-0.2

0.1

1.0

Germany b

0.2

0.7

1.4

0.7

0.8

1.5

3.0

2.5

-1.6

-1.5

-0.3

-0.1

-0.8

-0.8

0.4

Italy a

0.4

0.9

0.8

0.4

0.9

0.3

1.0

0.8

-0.6

-3.0

-1.0

-

0.1

0.1

0.7

United Kingdom c

3.8

1.2

0.2

2.1

3.6

3.2

1.0

-3.2

-2.6

-1.3

0.6

1.1

2.4

1.9

1.0

17 smaller countries

0.1

1.2

1.6

1.8

1.6

1.9

1.7

0.9

-0.9

-1.5

0.7

2.0

1.3

0.3

2.7

Austria

-0.1

0.3

0.3

-0.1

0.3

1.4

1.9

1.6

0.4

-0.5

0.1

0.2

-0.5

0.3

0.7

Belgium c

-0.2

0.6

0.6

0.6

1.5

1.4

1.0

-

-0.5

-0.9

-0.2

0.5

0.6

0.8

1.1

Cyprus

3.8

3.7

1.1

3.1

4.7

3.9

2.8

0.6

4.1

-0.1

2.8

3.4

1.0

-0.2

1.8

Denmark

1.7

2.5

2.6

0.9

-0.6

-0.7

-0.7

-0.6

-0.8

-1.5

1.4

1.1

0.8

2.0

1.9

Finland a

0.4

0.1

-0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

-0.5

-5.5

-7.3

-6.3

-1.2

1.7

1.1

2.3

2.4

Greece

0.4

1.0

0.3

-0.1

1.7

0.4

1.3

-2.3

1.3

1.0

1.9

0.9

1.2

-0.4

3.0

Iceland a

1.5

3.6

3.2

5.7

-3.0

-1.4

-1.0

-0.1

-1.4

-0.7

0.5

0.8

2.4

2.8

2.1

Ireland d

-1.9

-2.2

0.2

-0.1

1.0

-0.1

3.3

0.7

2.7

1.5

3.2

5.0

3.7

3.8

8.3

Israel

1.5

0.7

1.4

2.6

3.5

0.5

2.1

6.1

4.2

6.1

6.9

5.2

2.4

1.4

1.8

Luxembourg

0.6

0.8

2.5

3.0

3.0

3.4

3.9

4.3

2.6

1.5

2.5

2.4

3.1

3.2

4.5

Malta e

0.6

1.3

2.1

5.9

2.5

0.9

0.8

2.5

1.0

0.5

1.2

3.8

1.0

0.5

0.4

Netherlands a

0.1

1.9

2.1

1.7

1.6

1.9

2.3

1.5

1.0

-0.5

-0.8

1.4

1.8

2.7

2.8

Norway a

1.4

2.9

3.1

2.5

-0.4

-2.8

-1.0

-1.1

-0.5

0.1

1.2

2.0

2.0

2.9

2.2

Portugal

-1.0

-0.5

2.7

2.3

2.2

1.9

1.7

2.8

-1.6

-2.0

-0.2

-0.7

0.7

1.9

2.8

Spain a

-2.7

1.1

2.2

3.1

2.9

4.0

2.6

0.2

-1.9

-4.3

-0.9

2.7

1.2

2.7

3.7

Sweden

0.8

1.0

0.6

0.8

1.4

1.5

0.9

-1.5

-4.4

-5.2

-1.0

1.5

-0.5

-1.0

1.4

Switzerland

1.0

2.0

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.7

3.2

1.8

-1.5

-0.8

-0.1

0.1

0.3

-0.3

1.0

Turkey

1.5

1.7

1.8

2.3

1.5

2.0

1.8

3.1

0.2

0.2

2.8

3.7

2.0

-2.5

3.0

North America

4.6

2.5

1.8

2.9

3.0

2.5

0.6

-0.8

-0.2

1.8

2.5

2.5

1.8

2.3

2.6

Canada

2.7

3.0

3.0

2.7

3.2

2.1

0.6

-1.9

-0.6

1.3

2.1

1.6

1.3

1.9

2.8

United States f

4.8

2.4

1.7

2.9

2.9

2.5

0.6

-0.7

-0.1

1.8

2.5

2.6

1.9

2.4

2.6

Total above

2.3

1.5

1.4

2.0

2.2

2.1

1.2

-0.1

-0.8

-0.3

1.1

1.7

1.2

1.2

2.0

Japan

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.4

1.2

1.5

1.7

2.0

1.1

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.5

1.1

-0.6

Total above, including Japan

1.9

1.3

1.2

1.7

2.0

2.0

1.2

0.2

-0.5

-0.1

1.0

1.4

1.0

1.1

1.5

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union g

0.5

0.6

0.9

1.1

1.6

2.0

1.7

-

-1.4

-2.0

-0.2

0.6

0.5

0.6

1.3

Euro area

-0.3

0.4

1.1

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.8

1.0

-1.1

-2.1

-0.5

0.5

-

0.4

1.3

Source: National statistics; OECD, National Accounts Detailed Tables, Vol. II, 1999 and OECD Economic Outlook, No. 65, June 1999 (Paris); UN/ECE secretariat estimates.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel. National accounts statistics, where available; otherwise annual labour force surveys. Unless otherwise indicated, the data refer to the annual average number of persons employed, i.e. no adjustment is made for part-time workers. Comparisons with previous years are limited due to changes in methodology: Belgium from 1986 onwards, Denmark and Italy from 1989 onwards, Finland and Netherlands from 1991 onwards, Germany from 1992 onwards and Spain from 1996 onwards because of the shift to SNA93 or ESA95 definitions; Israel (1986 and 1996) and Malta (1995).

a Full-time equivalent data; Italy 1989 onwards; Finland and Netherlands 1991 onwards; Spain 1996 onwards.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c June.

d Mid-April estimates.

e End of year.

f Full-time equivalent employees plus the number of self-employed persons (unpaid family workers are not included).

g Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.10

Standardized unemployment rates a in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Per cent of civilian labour force)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

9.3

9.4

9.4

9.3

8.7

8.1

7.6

8.0

8.9

10.2

10.6

10.1

10.1

10.0

9.4

4 major countries

9.0

9.3

9.3

9.2

8.6

7.9

7.3

7.9

8.7

9.8

10.1

9.8

10.1

10.2

9.7

France

9.7

10.1

10.2

10.4

9.8

9.3

9.0

9.5

10.4

11.7

12.3

11.7

12.4

12.3

11.7

Germany b

7.1

7.1

6.4

6.2

6.2

5.6

4.8

5.6

6.6

7.9

8.4

8.2

8.9

9.9

9.4

Italy

8.1

8.5

9.2

10.0

10.0

10.0

9.1

8.8

9.0

10.3

11.4

11.9

12.0

12.1

12.3

United Kingdom

11.2

11.5

11.6

10.6

8.7

7.3

7.1

8.9

10.0

10.5

9.6

8.7

8.2

7.0

6.3

17 smaller countries

9.7

9.6

9.6

9.4

9.0

8.4

7.9

8.2

9.1

10.7

11.2

10.4

10.1

9.7

8.9

Austria

3.8

3.6

3.1

3.8

3.6

3.1

3.2

3.5

3.6

4.0

3.8

3.9

4.4

4.5

4.7

Belgium

11.1

10.4

10.3

10.0

8.9

7.5

6.7

6.6

7.3

8.9

10.0

9.9

9.7

9.4

9.5

Cyprus c

3.3

3.3

3.7

3.4

2.8

2.3

1.8

3.0

1.8

2.6

2.7

2.6

3.1

3.4

3.3

Denmark

10.1

9.0

7.8

7.8

6.1

7.4

7.7

8.5

9.2

10.1

8.2

7.3

6.8

5.6

5.1

Finland

5.9

6.1

6.7

4.9

4.2

3.1

3.2

6.7

11.6

16.4

16.7

15.3

14.6

12.6

11.4

Greece

7.2

7.0

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.7

6.4

7.0

7.9

8.6

8.9

9.2

9.6

10.0

9.8

Iceland

1.3

0.9

0.6

0.5

1.2

1.7

1.8

1.5

3.1

4.4

4.8

5.0

4.4

3.9

2.8

Ireland

15.5

16.9

16.8

16.6

16.2

14.7

13.4

14.8

15.4

15.6

14.3

12.3

11.6

9.9

7.8

Israel

5.9

6.7

7.1

6.1

6.4

8.9

9.6

10.6

11.2

10.0

7.8

6.9

6.7

7.7

8.6

Luxembourg

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.5

2.0

1.8

1.7

1.7

2.1

2.7

3.2

2.9

3.0

2.8

2.8

Malta c

8.6

8.1

6.9

4.4

4.0

3.7

3.8

3.6

4.0

4.5

4.1

3.8

4.4

5.0

4.9

Netherlands

9.3

8.3

8.3

8.0

7.6

6.9

6.2

5.8

5.6

6.6

7.1

6.9

6.3

5.2

4.0

Norway

3.2

2.7

2.0

2.1

3.2

5.0

5.3

5.6

6.0

6.1

5.5

5.0

4.9

4.1

3.3

Portugal

8.5

8.7

8.4

6.9

5.5

4.9

4.6

4.0

4.2

5.7

7.0

7.3

7.3

6.8

5.1

Spain

20.3

21.7

21.2

20.6

19.5

17.2

16.2

16.4

18.4

22.7

24.1

22.9

22.2

20.8

18.8

Sweden

3.3

2.9

2.7

2.2

1.8

1.6

1.7

3.1

5.6

9.1

9.4

8.8

9.6

9.9

8.3

Switzerland

1.0

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.5

1.1

2.5

4.5

4.7

4.2

4.7

5.2

3.8

Turkey

7.6

7.1

7.9

8.3

8.4

8.6

8.0

7.9

8.0

7.7

8.1

6.9

6.0

6.4

6.8

North America

7.9

7.5

7.3

6.5

5.7

5.5

5.9

7.2

7.9

7.4

6.5

6.0

5.8

5.4

4.9

Canada

11.3

10.5

9.6

8.9

7.8

7.5

8.1

10.4

11.3

11.2

10.4

9.5

9.7

9.2

8.4

United States

7.5

7.2

7.0

6.2

5.5

5.3

5.6

6.8

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

Total above

8.7

8.6

8.5

8.1

7.4

7.0

6.8

7.7

8.5

9.0

8.8

8.3

8.3

8.0

7.4

Japan

2.7

2.6

2.8

2.9

2.5

2.3

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

3.4

3.4

4.1

Total above, including Japan

7.7

7.6

7.5

7.2

6.6

6.2

6.0

6.8

7.4

7.9

7.9

7.5

7.5

7.2

6.9

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union d

9.8

10.0

9.9

9.7

9.1

8.3

7.7

8.2

9.2

10.7

11.1

10.7

10.8

10.6

10.0

Euro area

9.8

10.1

10.0

10.0

9.6

8.9

8.2

8.3

9.2

10.9

11.6

11.4

11.6

11.6

10.9

Source: National statistics; OECD, Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, No. 4, 1998, Main Economic Indicators, various issues and OECD Economic Outlook, No. 65, June 1999 (Paris); UN/ECE secretariat estimates.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel. Comparisons with previous years are limited by changes in methodology in Austria (1994), Israel (1985 and 1995), Italy (1993), Malta (1994), Portugal (1992) and the United States (1990 and 1994).

a ILO definition, except for Austria (1984-1992), Cyprus, Denmark (1984-1987), Iceland, Israel, Malta, Switzerland and Turkey.

b West Germany 1984-1990.

c End of year.

d Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.11

Consumer prices in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over previous year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

7.0

6.1

3.6

3.3

3.6

5.1

5.6

5.1

4.5

3.6

3.0

3.0

2.4

2.0

1.7

4 major countries

6.0

5.5

2.6

2.8

3.2

4.9

5.2

4.6

4.2

3.3

2.7

2.9

2.4

2.0

1.6

France

7.4

5.8

2.7

3.1

2.7

3.6

3.3

3.2

2.4

2.1

1.7

1.7

2.0

1.2

0.7

Germany a

2.3

2.2

-0.2

0.3

1.2

2.8

2.7

3.6

5.1

4.5

2.7

1.8

1.5

1.8

0.9

Italy

10.8

9.2

5.8

4.8

5.1

6.3

6.5

6.3

5.3

4.6

4.1

5.2

3.9

1.7

1.8

United Kingdom

5.0

6.1

3.4

4.1

4.9

7.8

9.5

5.9

3.7

1.6

2.4

3.5

2.4

3.1

3.4

16 smaller countries

9.3

7.5

5.9

4.4

4.4

5.6

6.6

6.1

5.1

4.4

3.6

3.3

2.6

2.0

1.7

Austria

5.6

3.2

1.7

1.4

2.0

2.5

3.2

3.4

4.0

3.7

3.0

2.2

1.9

1.3

0.9

Belgium

6.4

4.9

1.3

1.5

1.1

3.2

3.4

3.2

2.4

2.8

2.4

1.5

2.0

1.6

1.0

Cyprus

6.0

5.1

1.2

2.8

3.4

3.8

4.5

5.0

6.5

4.9

4.7

2.6

2.9

3.6

2.2

Denmark

6.3

4.7

3.6

4.0

4.6

4.8

2.7

2.4

2.1

1.3

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.2

1.9

Finland

7.1

5.9

2.9

4.1

5.1

6.6

6.2

4.3

3.0

2.1

1.1

1.0

0.5

1.2

1.4

Greece

18.4

19.3

23.0

16.4

13.5

13.7

20.4

19.5

15.9

14.4

10.7

8.8

8.3

5.5

4.8

Iceland

29.2

32.6

22.7

18.8

19.1

20.8

15.4

6.8

3.7

4.1

1.5

1.7

2.3

1.8

1.7

Ireland

8.6

5.4

3.8

3.1

2.1

4.1

3.3

3.2

3.1

1.4

2.4

2.5

1.7

1.4

2.4

Israel

373.8

304.6

48.1

19.9

16.3

20.2

17.2

19.0

12.0

11.0

12.3

10.1

11.3

9.0

5.4

Luxembourg

6.4

4.1

0.3

-0.1

1.4

3.4

3.3

3.1

3.2

3.6

2.2

1.9

1.3

1.4

1.0

Malta

-0.4

-0.3

2.0

0.5

0.9

0.9

3.0

2.5

1.6

4.1

4.1

4.0

2.5

3.2

2.2

Netherlands

3.1

2.3

0.2

-0.8

0.7

1.1

2.5

3.1

3.2

2.6

2.7

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.0

Norway

6.2

5.7

7.2

8.7

6.7

4.6

4.1

3.4

2.3

2.3

1.4

2.4

1.3

2.6

2.3

Portugal

28.9

19.6

11.8

9.4

9.7

12.6

13.4

10.5

9.5

6.7

5.4

4.2

3.1

2.3

2.8

Spain

11.3

8.8

8.8

5.2

4.8

6.9

6.7

5.9

5.9

4.6

4.8

4.6

3.6

2.0

1.8

Sweden

8.0

7.4

4.2

4.2

5.8

6.5

10.4

9.4

2.2

4.7

2.2

2.5

0.5

0.5

-0.1

Switzerland

2.9

3.5

0.8

1.4

1.9

3.1

5.4

5.9

4.0

3.3

0.9

1.8

0.8

0.5

0.1

Turkey

48.4

45.7

34.3

37.8

69.4

63.3

60.3

65.8

70.1

66.2

105.2

88.0

79.8

84.8

86.2

North America

4.3

3.6

2.0

3.7

4.1

4.8

5.4

4.3

2.9

2.9

2.4

2.8

2.9

2.2

1.5

Canada

4.3

4.0

4.1

4.4

4.0

5.0

4.8

5.6

1.5

1.8

0.2

2.2

1.6

1.6

0.9

United States

4.3

3.6

1.9

3.6

4.1

4.8

5.4

4.2

3.0

3.0

2.6

2.8

3.0

2.3

1.6

Total above

5.5

4.7

2.7

3.5

3.9

5.0

5.5

4.7

3.6

3.2

2.7

2.9

2.7

2.1

1.6

Japan

2.3

2.0

0.7

-

0.7

2.4

3.1

3.2

1.7

1.3

0.7

-0.1

0.1

1.8

0.6

Total above, including Japan

5.0

4.3

2.4

3.0

3.4

4.6

5.1

4.4

3.3

3.0

2.4

2.5

2.3

2.1

1.4

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union b

7.1

6.1

3.6

3.3

3.6

5.2

5.6

5.1

4.5

3.7

3.1

3.1

2.5

2.0

1.7

Euro area

7.2

5.8

3.1

2.7

3.0

4.4

4.4

4.5

4.5

3.8

3.0

2.9

2.4

1.7

1.3

Source: National statistics.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel and Turkey. Growth rates of regional aggregates have been calculated as weighted averages of growth rates in individual countries. Weights were derived from 1996 private final consumption expenditure converted from national currency units into dollars using 1996 purchasing power parities.

a West Germany 1984-1991.

b Fifteen countries.

 APPENDIX TABLE B.1

Real GDP/NMP in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

88.7

94.8

97.8

99.4

100.8

100.0

93.2

82.9

79.3

79.0

82.1

86.8

90.1

92.1

93.5

Albania

79.4

88.2

93.1

92.4

91.0

100.0

90.0

64.8

60.1

65.9

71.4

80.9

88.2

82.0

88.6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bulgaria

76.2

89.9

93.6

99.3

101.9

100.0

90.9

83.3

77.2

76.1

77.5

79.7

71.6

66.6

69.0

Croatia a

99.0

99.8

102.6

102.5

101.6

100.0

92.9

73.3

64.7

59.5

63.0

67.3

71.3

76.2

78.1

Czech Republic

..

91.3

93.2

93.7

95.7

100.0

98.8

87.3

86.9

86.9

88.8

94.1

97.7

98.0

95.8

Hungary

86.3

94.1

95.5

99.4

99.3

100.0

96.5

85.0

82.4

81.9

84.4

85.6

86.8

90.7

95.3

Poland

91.1

90.3

94.1

95.9

99.8

100.0

88.4

82.2

84.4

87.6

92.1

98.6

104.5

111.7

117.1

Romania

88.5

103.4

105.8

106.7

106.2

100.0

94.4

82.2

75.0

76.2

79.2

84.8

88.2

82.1

76.1

Slovakia

..

91.0

94.8

97.1

99.0

100.0

97.5

83.3

77.9

75.1

78.7

84.2

89.7

95.6

99.8

Slovenia

98.9

100.9

104.1

103.5

100.5

100.0

91.9

83.7

79.1

81.4

85.7

89.3

92.4

96.6

100.4

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

93.3

96.0

102.7

101.4

98.1

100.0

89.8

83.5

76.8

69.9

68.6

67.8

68.3

69.3

71.3

Yugoslavia a

95.7

98.7

101.4

100.2

98.8

100.0

92.1

81.4

58.7

40.6

41.7

44.2

46.8

50.3

51.6

Baltic states

67.8

81.4

85.6

89.0

96.0

100.0

97.8

89.9

67.9

58.2

55.2

56.4

58.8

63.7

66.5

Estonia

74.5

85.7

88.2

89.2

93.8

100.0

91.9

82.7

71.0

65.0

63.7

66.4

69.0

76.3

79.4

Latvia

68.5

81.3

85.1

89.0

93.6

100.0

102.9

92.2

60.1

51.1

51.5

51.0

52.7

57.3

59.3

Lithuania

64.7

79.8

84.9

88.9

98.4

100.0

96.7

91.2

71.8

60.2

54.3

56.1

58.7

63.0

66.2

CIS b c

77.5

90.4

92.4

93.9

98.1

100.0

96.8

90.9

78.0

70.4

60.3

56.9

55.0

55.6

54.0

Armenia

73.5

95.9

97.7

94.5

92.2

100.0

94.5

83.4

48.6

44.3

46.7

49.9

52.8

54.6

58.5

Azerbaijan

79.6

98.8

100.6

105.1

109.7

100.0

88.3

87.7

67.9

52.2

41.9

37.0

37.4

39.6

43.6

Belarus

65.7

85.2

88.9

91.3

92.4

100.0

98.1

96.9

87.6

81.0

70.8

63.4

65.2

72.6

78.6

Georgia

79.4

100.0

98.8

96.8

103.6

100.0

84.9

67.0

36.9

26.1

23.4

24.0

26.7

29.7

30.6

Kazakhstan

87.0

90.8

92.3

92.1

100.1

100.0

99.0

88.1

83.4

75.8

66.2

60.8

61.1

62.1

60.6

Kyrgyzstan

69.1

82.9

83.6

84.7

95.6

100.0

104.8

96.5

83.2

70.3

56.2

53.1

56.9

62.5

63.7

Republic of Moldova d

72.1

82.6

89.2

90.3

91.9

100.0

97.6

80.5

57.2

56.5

39.0

38.3

35.3

35.9

32.8

Russian Federation

78.1

90.7

92.9

94.2

98.4

100.0

97.0

92.2

78.8

71.9

62.8

60.2

58.2

58.7

56.0

Tajikistan

80.8

91.8

95.0

93.9

106.9

100.0

100.2

91.7

62.1

52.0

40.9

35.8

29.8

30.3

32.0

Turkmenistan

80.7

89.5

93.4

97.1

107.5

100.0

101.8

97.0

82.5

83.7

69.2

64.2

68.5

60.7

63.8

Ukraine

75.0

88.7

90.0

93.4

95.2

100.0

96.4

88.0

79.2

68.0

52.4

46.0

41.4

40.1

39.4

Uzbekistan

76.0

88.1

88.0

88.4

97.0

100.0

99.2

98.7

87.7

85.7

81.2

80.5

81.9

86.1

89.9

Total above

80.3

91.4

93.7

95.2

98.7

100.0

95.9

88.8

78.1

72.4

65.9

64.7

64.3

65.3

64.6

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

88.6

92.2

95.1

97.3

99.6

100.0

93.3

84.1

83.8

85.0

88.5

93.5

97.8

102.6

105.9

SETE-7

88.8

99.3

102.4

103.1

102.9

100.0

93.1

80.7

71.4

68.4

70.8

75.2

76.6

73.6

71.7

Czechoslovakia b

84.9

92.7

95.1

97.0

99.3

100.0

98.5

84.4

78.8

..

..

..

..

..

..

Yugoslavia (SFR) a

97.7

99.5

103.0

101.0

99.4

100.0

92.4

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Former Soviet Union b

77.3

90.1

92.2

93.8

98.0

100.0

96.8

90.9

77.7

70.1

60.2

56.9

55.1

55.8

54.4

Former GDR

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

84.5

68.3

73.6

80.4

88.2

92.0

95.0

96.6

98.5

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

Note: Data for the east European countries are based on a GDP measure, except where otherwise mentioned. For the countries of the former Soviet Union, NMP data for 1980-1990 were chain-linked to GDP data from 1990. Country indices were aggregated with previous year PPP-based weights obtained from the European Comparison Programme for 1996.

a Gross material product (1980-1989 for Croatia).

b Sum of individual country data for former members.

c Net material product for 1980-1990 (until 1992 in the case of Turkmenistan).

d Excluding Transdniestria since 1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.2

Real total consumption expenditure in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100 or earliest year available thereafter)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

100.6

92.3

89.4

86.2

82.3

80.7

75.3

64.0

68.8

Croatia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

87.2

85.3

92.0

106.6

106.5

117.1

118.4

Czech Republic

..

..

..

91.3

93.1

100.0

104.9

85.5

88.4

90.2

94.5

97.2

101.7

104.2

102.2

Hungary

92.2

99.2

101.5

104.9

102.0

100.0

97.3

92.2

92.8

97.9

95.6

89.3

86.6

88.6

92.4

Poland

108.0

105.1

109.3

111.8

114.7

100.0

88.3

94.9

98.2

103.0

106.9

110.4

118.4

125.6

130.8

Romania

83.9

85.4

85.8

88.7

90.6

100.0

108.9

96.0

90.7

91.8

95.3

105.5

112.9

108.0

104.1

Slovakia

..

81.8

85.4

89.2

92.1

100.0

103.3

76.9

75.6

74.3

71.6

73.9

82.0

85.5

88.5

Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

91.6

88.8

99.1

102.6

110.2

113.1

117.2

120.9

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

101.2

110.4

116.5

124.4

131.9

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

76.7

49.2

46.5

47.4

47.0

50.8

52.7

55.7

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

102.6

112.3

..

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

97.4

84.9

66.4

68.9

74.5

76.8

81.7

85.3

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

80.3

78.0

84.3

93.2

..

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

93.4

84.0

82.1

72.1

65.3

67.4

73.8

..

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

79.2

77.1

45.4

42.4

46.1

..

..

..

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

96.8

96.1

84.9

67.7

55.1

51.2

51.8

..

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

87.2

77.1

62.0

52.0

55.3

50.8

50.4

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

82.6

90.3

99.8

111.6

105.3

Russian Federation

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

93.9

89.0

88.1

85.4

83.1

81.3

82.6

80.3

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

94.3

88.6

72.0

65.0

62.6

57.4

59.3

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

APPENDIX TABLE B.3

Real gross fixed capital formation in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100 or earliest year available thereafter)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

80.0

74.1

61.2

61.9

71.8

56.6

43.0

50.1

Croatia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

88.5

94.5

93.6

108.2

148.8

183.5

189.0

Czech Republic

..

..

..

93.4

99.4

100.0

97.9

71.1

82.8

83.0

90.5

108.5

117.3

112.2

108.0

Hungary

114.7

94.6

100.8

110.7

100.6

100.0

92.9

83.1

81.0

82.6

92.9

88.9

94.8

103.6

115.9

Poland

124.6

111.4

116.4

116.5

126.5

100.0

75.2

71.9

73.6

75.7

82.6

96.2

115.2

140.1

160.5

Romania

163.7

161.5

163.3

161.0

157.6

100.0

64.4

44.0

48.9

52.9

63.9

68.3

72.2

70.1

57.4

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

74.8

71.5

68.5

64.7

64.6

90.3

103.3

114.7

Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

88.5

77.1

85.4

97.4

113.8

124.2

138.3

156.2

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

106.2

110.5

123.1

144.6

156.3

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

36.1

25.7

21.6

21.8

23.7

29.0

35.0

38.9

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

110.9

137.0

..

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

67.0

8.6

7.9

11.5

9.5

10.5

10.7

12.0

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

61.0

115.3

94.5

199.8

333.7

..

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

105.3

85.6

79.1

68.3

48.1

46.6

57.4

..

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

67.3

49.2

18.5

133.4

219.9

..

..

..

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

74.2

61.9

44.2

39.2

24.3

18.5

19.1

..

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

70.7

55.3

39.3

63.2

54.9

38.7

33.1

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

56.5

54.5

68.1

64.9

64.8

Russian Federation

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

84.5

49.4

36.7

27.1

25.1

20.1

19.2

17.5

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

81.6

69.3

48.2

28.4

19.7

15.2

14.2

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

APPENDIX TABLE B.3

Real gross fixed capital formation in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100 or earliest year available thereafter)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

80.0

74.1

61.2

61.9

71.8

56.6

43.0

50.1

Croatia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

88.5

94.5

93.6

108.2

148.8

183.5

189.0

Czech Republic

..

..

..

93.4

99.4

100.0

97.9

71.1

82.8

83.0

90.5

108.5

117.3

112.2

108.0

Hungary

114.7

94.6

100.8

110.7

100.6

100.0

92.9

83.1

81.0

82.6

92.9

88.9

94.8

103.6

115.9

Poland

124.6

111.4

116.4

116.5

126.5

100.0

75.2

71.9

73.6

75.7

82.6

96.2

115.2

140.1

160.5

Romania

163.7

161.5

163.3

161.0

157.6

100.0

64.4

44.0

48.9

52.9

63.9

68.3

72.2

70.1

57.4

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

74.8

71.5

68.5

64.7

64.6

90.3

103.3

114.7

Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

88.5

77.1

85.4

97.4

113.8

124.2

138.3

156.2

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

106.2

110.5

123.1

144.6

156.3

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

36.1

25.7

21.6

21.8

23.7

29.0

35.0

38.9

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

110.9

137.0

..

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

67.0

8.6

7.9

11.5

9.5

10.5

10.7

12.0

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

61.0

115.3

94.5

199.8

333.7

..

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

105.3

85.6

79.1

68.3

48.1

46.6

57.4

..

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

67.3

49.2

18.5

133.4

219.9

..

..

..

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

74.2

61.9

44.2

39.2

24.3

18.5

19.1

..

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

70.7

55.3

39.3

63.2

54.9

38.7

33.1

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

56.5

54.5

68.1

64.9

64.8

Russian Federation

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

84.5

49.4

36.7

27.1

25.1

20.1

19.2

17.5

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

81.6

69.3

48.2

28.4

19.7

15.2

14.2

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

 APPENDIX TABLE B.4

Real gross industrial output in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

82.8

92.2

96.0

98.5

100.6

100.0

85.9

70.1

62.8

61.3

65.3

70.2

73.9

77.4

78.4

Albania

77.0

87.5

91.9

93.3

95.2

100.0

86.7

50.4

35.2

31.7

25.8

23.9

27.2

25.7

28.2

Bosnia and Herzegovina

106.0

104.1

104.1

101.1

98.1

100.0

101.8

76.9

25.5

2.0

1.7

2.8

5.2

7.0

8.7

Bulgaria

71.3

88.3

92.4

98.0

101.1

100.0

83.2

66.4

54.2

48.8

54.0

56.4

59.3

53.4

46.6

Croatia

88.7

95.1

99.4

102.0

100.6

100.0

88.7

63.4

54.2

51.0

49.6

49.7

51.3

54.8

56.8

Czech Republic

81.5

92.0

94.5

96.5

98.5

100.0

96.6

75.7

69.8

66.1

67.4

73.3

74.8

78.1

79.4

Hungary

92.9

102.1

104.0

106.4

105.3

100.0

90.7

74.1

66.9

69.6

76.3

79.8

82.5

91.7

103.1

Poland

86.3

88.5

92.3

95.5

100.5

100.0

75.8

69.7

71.7

76.3

85.5

93.8

101.6

113.3

118.5

Romania

76.9

90.5

96.8

99.2

101.9

100.0

81.9

63.3

49.4

50.1

51.7

56.6

60.1

55.8

46.3

Slovakia

76.7

91.6

95.2

98.6

100.8

100.0

94.0

73.1

66.1

62.5

66.8

72.3

74.1

75.3

79.1

Slovenia

90.3

101.0

102.7

101.6

98.9

100.0

89.5

78.4

68.1

66.1

70.4

71.8

72.5

73.2

75.9

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

72.1

88.6

95.0

97.3

95.6

100.0

89.4

74.0

62.3

53.7

48.0

42.9

44.3

45.0

47.0

Yugoslavia

80.0

93.6

96.8

97.6

98.4

100.0

88.0

72.5

57.0

35.7

36.2

37.6

40.4

44.2

45.8

Baltic states

72.1

84.8

88.9

92.7

96.6

100.0

98.6

95.1

64.7

44.4

36.3

37.1

38.9

42.1

44.1

Estonia

78.5

90.2

93.5

96.3

99.3

100.0

100.0

92.8

59.8

48.6

47.1

48.0

49.4

56.6

57.9

Latvia

72.5

86.6

89.9

93.7

97.1

100.0

100.8

100.2

65.6

44.6

40.1

38.7

40.8

46.4

47.9

Lithuania

70.0

82.6

87.2

91.2

95.6

100.0

97.4

94.0

65.8

43.2

31.7

33.4

35.0

36.2

38.7

CIS a

73.4

87.3

91.2

94.5

98.2

100.0

99.9

93.1

78.2

68.3

53.5

50.6

48.9

50.1

48.6

Armenia b

76.3

100.7

105.3

110.3

109.1

100.0

92.5

71.6

38.8

24.6

15.0

12.9

13.8

15.0

14.5

Azerbaijan b

76.1

94.5

92.7

96.1

99.4

100.0

93.7

85.4

59.4

47.7

35.9

28.2

26.3

26.4

27.0

Belarus

61.1

79.0

84.3

89.9

95.6

100.0

102.1

101.1

91.6

82.4

68.3

60.3

62.4

74.2

83.1

Georgia

70.6

91.8

93.9

96.2

99.3

100.0

94.3

73.0

39.6

25.0

15.2

13.2

14.1

15.2

14.8

Kazakhstan

72.4

85.8

90.2

94.1

97.6

100.0

99.2

98.3

84.7

72.2

51.9

47.7

47.8

49.7

48.7

Kyrgyzstan

66.7

84.2

87.8

89.0

95.1

100.0

99.4

99.1

72.9

54.5

39.2

32.2

35.1

52.8

57.4

Republic of Moldova c

68.7

85.1

87.3

91.6

94.6

100.0

103.2

91.7

66.9

67.1

48.5

46.6

43.6

43.6

38.8

Russian Federation

74.4

87.8

91.8

95.0

98.6

100.0

99.9

91.9

75.4

64.7

51.2

49.5

47.5

48.5

46.0

Tajikistan

72.9

87.1

88.7

93.1

98.2

100.0

101.2

97.6

73.9

68.1

50.8

43.9

33.4

32.7

35.4

Turkmenistan

75.4

86.0

90.1

92.9

96.9

100.0

103.2

108.2

92.0

95.7

72.1

67.5

79.5

53.8

54.0

Ukraine

72.6

86.4

90.0

93.4

97.3

100.0

99.9

95.1

89.0

81.9

59.5

52.4

49.7

49.6

48.8

Uzbekistan

68.5

86.0

91.2

93.4

96.5

100.0

101.8

103.3

96.4

99.9

101.5

101.6

104.2

108.5

114.8

Total above

76.5

88.9

92.8

95.8

99.0

100.0

95.2

85.4

72.7

65.4

57.1

56.9

57.0

59.1

58.5

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

85.4

92.8

95.8

98.3

100.7

100.0

87.0

73.1

69.6

70.3

76.0

82.2

86.3

93.5

98.2

SETE-7

78.6

91.4

96.3

98.8

100.6

100.0

84.1

65.4

52.0

47.0

48.3

51.1

54.2

52.0

46.9

Czechoslovakia

80.5

91.9

94.8

97.2

99.2

100.0

96.5

75.2

67.6

..

..

..

..

..

..

Yugoslavia (SFR) a

86.9

96.4

99.3

99.7

98.7

100.0

88.3

71.7

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Former Soviet Union

73.4

87.2

91.1

94.5

98.2

100.0

99.8

93.1

77.7

67.4

52.9

50.1

48.5

49.9

48.5

Former GDR

75.2

89.5

92.5

94.7

97.7

100.0

72.7

37.0

34.8

36.8

42.0

44.4

45.9

48.5

52.2

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

Note: Data for former Czechoslovakia and the SFR of Yugoslavia for 1980 to the breakup obtained as sum of individual country data for former members. For the countries of the former Soviet Union, data for 1980-1990 were chain-linked to national or CIS data from 1990. Country indices were aggregated with previous year PPP-based weights on the basis of data obtained from the European Comparison Programme for 1996.

a Generated from components.

b Significant revisions of industrial output statistics back to 1991 were carried out by Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1998.

c Excluding Transdniestria since 1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.5

Total employment in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

94.7

96.6

97.4

98.0

97.9

100.0

97.0

90.7

85.0

82.3

82.3

81.9

82.5

82.7

..

Albania

77.9

90.1

93.1

95.9

97.6

100.0

99.2

97.5

76.0

72.7

80.7

79.0

77.5

76.9

75.3

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

94.6

58.1

22.1

9.9

9.1

10.1

22.5

34.4

36.4

Bulgaria

100.0

102.2

102.5

102.8

102.4

100.0

93.9

81.6

75.0

73.8

74.3

75.2

75.3

72.3

71.2

Croatia

87.4

95.9

98.6

100.6

100.4

100.0

96.9

88.5

77.9

76.5

74.8

73.9

73.9

73.4

..

Czech Republic

95.3

97.5

98.5

98.9

99.4

100.0

99.1

93.6

91.2

89.7

90.4

92.8

93.4

92.4

90.2

Hungary a

104.2

102.6

102.6

101.7

100.7

100.0

96.7

86.8

77.0

72.1

70.6

69.3

69.0

69.1

70.3

Poland

102.0

100.8

101.1

100.8

100.1

100.0

95.8

90.1

86.3

84.3

85.1

86.7

88.3

90.8

91.1

Romania b

94.6

96.7

97.5

97.9

98.7

100.0

99.0

98.5

95.5

91.9

91.5

86.7

85.7

82.4

80.5

Slovakia a

91.3

96.8

98.4

99.4

100.2

100.0

98.2

85.9

80.4

80.4

78.9

80.7

81.3

81.5

81.2

Slovenia c

84.0

88.9

90.4

101.9

101.3

100.0

96.1

88.7

83.8

81.3

79.3

79.1

78.7

78.6

78.7

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

79.1

92.7

96.0

100.5

100.1

100.0

98.5

95.6

91.2

86.2

81.7

73.9

70.6

66.8

65.0

Yugoslavia

83.4

93.7

96.5

99.0

99.8

100.0

97.0

94.1

90.9

88.3

86.5

85.3

84.8

89.9

89.7

Baltic states d

94.9

98.0

98.8

99.4

99.6

100.0

98.5

98.9

94.4

89.0

83.2

80.6

80.1

80.9

80.5

Estonia

..

96.7

97.9

97.6

97.6

100.0

98.6

96.4

91.4

84.5

82.7

78.3

77.0

77.4

76.4

Latvia

97.0

99.1

99.8

100.4

100.5

100.0

100.1

99.3

92.0

85.6

77.0

74.3

72.3

73.7

74.1

Lithuania

93.4

97.7

98.5

99.5

99.8

100.0

97.3

99.7

97.5

93.4

88.0

86.4

87.2

87.7

87.0

CIS

94.3

97.8

98.3

98.9

99.3

100.0

100.2

98.9

96.5

94.2

91.3

90.4

89.7

88.4

..

Armenia

86.6

97.2

98.6

99.5

101.4

100.0

102.4

105.0

99.2

97.0

93.5

92.8

90.2

86.2

84.9

Azerbaijan

79.8

90.9

92.7

95.2

95.8

100.0

100.9

101.7

101.4

101.2

98.9

98.4

100.5

100.7

100.9

Belarus

95.4

98.4

98.8

99.0

99.5

100.0

99.1

96.6

94.1

92.9

90.4

84.8

84.0

84.1

85.0

Georgia

92.7

98.8

100.1

101.0

101.1

100.0

102.3

93.3

73.5

66.4

64.8

79.0

79.1

82.7

83.3

Kazakhstan

86.2

92.6

93.5

94.7

96.0

100.0

101.3

100.1

98.3

89.9

85.4

85.0

84.6

84.0

79.5

Kyrgyzstan

81.9

92.8

95.0

97.9

98.7

100.0

100.5

99.6

105.6

96.6

94.6

94.4

95.0

97.1

98.0

Republic of Moldova e

97.3

99.5

99.6

99.7

98.9

100.0

99.1

99.0

98.0

80.7

80.4

80.0

79.4

78.7

78.5

Russian Federation

96.9

99.1

99.5

99.7

99.9

100.0

99.6

97.7

95.3

93.7

90.6

87.9

87.2

85.5

84.2

Tajikistan

76.7

89.5

91.2

94.5

96.9

100.0

103.2

104.9

101.6

98.8

98.8

98.7

92.2

95.3

95.6

Turkmenistan

76.4

89.7

91.7

94.3

96.8

100.0

103.4

105.3

105.4

110.0

111.6

112.1

111.7

112.3

..

Ukraine

99.6

100.6

100.5

100.3

99.9

100.0

99.9

98.3

96.3

94.1

90.5

93.3

91.3

88.8

87.9

Uzbekistan

75.4

86.8

88.9

93.2

95.9

100.0

104.2

109.2

108.7

108.5

109.9

110.8

112.3

113.8

115.4

Total above

94.0

97.5

98.1

98.7

98.9

100.0

99.3

96.6

93.3

90.8

88.7

87.9

87.5

86.7

..

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

99.8

99.9

100.4

100.6

100.1

100.0

96.7

89.8

85.1

82.8

82.9

84.1

85.1

86.3

86.3

SETE-7

87.8

92.2

93.4

94.4

94.9

100.0

97.4

92.0

85.0

81.7

81.5

79.0

78.9

77.8

..

Former Soviet Union

93.7

97.8

98.3

98.9

99.3

100.0

100.2

98.9

96.5

94.0

91.1

90.1

89.4

88.2

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

a End of year, up to 1992, since 1992 onwards annual average.

b End of year.

c Self-employed excluded until 1987.

d Excluding Estonia until 1985.

e Excluding Transdniestria since 1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.6

Registered unemployment in the ECE transition economies, 1990, 1994-1998
(Thousands and per cent of labour force, end of period)

 

Thousands

Per cent of labour force

 

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

2 773

7 190

6 583

6 300

6 196

..

..

13.6

12.5

11.7

11.9

12.6

Albania

150

262

171

158

194

235

9.5

18.0

12.9

12.3

14.9

17.6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

185

222

257

..

..

..

..

39*

38*

Bulgaria

72

488

424

478

524

465

1.8

12.8

11.1

12.5

13.7

12.2

Croatia

196

248

249

269

287

303

..

17.3

17.6

15.9

17.6

18.6

Czech Republic

39

167

153

186

269

387

0.7

3.2

2.9

3.5

5.2

7.5

Hungary

101

520

496

479

464

404

1.7

10.9

10.4

10.5

10.4

9.1

Poland

1 126

2 838

2 629

2 360

1 826

1 831

6.5

16.0

14.9

13.2

10.3

10.4

Romania

150

1 224

998

658

881

1025

1.3

10.9

9.5

6.6

8.8

10.3

Slovakia

40

372

330

330

348

427

1.6

14.8

13.1

12.8

12.5

15.6

Slovenia

55

124

127

125

129

127

..

14.2

14.5

14.4

14.8

14.6

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia a

156

196

229

245

258

..

..

33.2

37.2

39.8

42*

..

Yugoslavia a

688

751

777

827

794

849

..

23.9

24.7

26.1

25.6

27.2

Baltic states

..

197

245

237

236

269

..

5.3

6.6

6.4

6.3

7.3

Estonia b

..

35

34

37

31

35

..

5.1

5.0

5.6

4.6

5.1

Latvia

..

84

83

91

85

111

..

6.5

6.6

7.2

6.7

9.2

Lithuania

..

78

128

109

120

123

..

4.5

7.3

6.2

6.7

6.9

CIS

..

6 011

7 185

8 519

9 673

11 579

..

4.4

5.8

6.6

7.6

9.0

Armenia

..

92

132

159

174

134

..

6.0

8.1

9.7

11.0

8.9

Azerbaijan

..

24

28

32

38

42

..

0.9

1.1

1.1

1.3

1.4

Belarus

..

101

131

183

126

106

..

2.1

2.7

4

2.8

2.3

Georgia

..

76

61

58

143

99

..

3.8

3.4

3.2

8.0

4.2

Kazakhstan

..

70

140

282

259

252

..

1.0

2.1

4.1

3.9

3.7

Kyrgyzstan

..

13

50

77

55

56

..

0.8

3.0

4.5

3.1

3.1

Republic of Moldova

..

21

25

23

28

32

..

1.0

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.9

Russian Federation c

..

5 478

6 431

7280

8 133

9 728

..

7.5

8.9

10.0

11.2

13.3

Tajikistan

..

32

35

46

51

54

..

1.8

1.8

2.4

2.8

2.9

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Ukraine

..

82

127

351

637

1 003

..

0.3

0.6

1.5

2.8

4.3

Uzbekistan

..

22

25

28

29

33

..

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

Total above

..

13 398

14 013

15 056

16 105

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

1 361

4 021

3 735

3 480

3 036

3 176

..

12.9

12.0

11.2

9.8

10.2

SETE-7

1 412

3 169

2 848

2 635

2 936

..

..

14.6

13.7

12.5

14.3

15.4

Russian Federation d

..

1 637

2 327

2 506

1 999

1 929

..

2.1

3.2

3.4

2.8

2.7

Source: National statistics and direct communications from national statistical offices to UN/ECE secretariat.

a The data reported on employment cover only the social sector in agriculture, hence unemployment rates are biased upwards. In Yugoslavia, according to the labour force survey, the unemployment rate was 13.7 per cent in October 1998, instead of the officially reported rate of some 27 per cent. Also, in The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, according to the labour force survey, the unemployment rate was 34.5 per cent in April 1998 instead of reported estimates of some 40 per cent.

b Job seekers.

c Based on Russian Federation Goskomstat's monthly estimates according to the ILO definition, i.e. including all persons not having employment but actively seeking work.

d Registered unemployment.

APPENDIX TABLE B.7

Consumer prices in the ECE transition economies, 1989-1998
(Annual average, percentage change over preceding year)

 

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Albania

..

..

35.5

193.1

85.0

21.5

8.0

12.7

33.1

20.3

Bosnia and Herzegovina

36.8

594.0

116.2

64 218.3

38 825.1

553.5

-12.1

-21.2

11.8

4.9

Bulgaria

6.4

23.8

338.5

91.3

72.9

96.2

62.1

123.1

1 082.6

22.2

Croatia a

1 200.0

609.5

123.0

663.6

1 516.6

97.5

2.0

3.6

3.7

5.9

Czech Republic

1.4

9.9

56.7

11.1

20.8

10.0

9.1

8.9

8.4

10.6

Hungary

17.0

28.9

35.0

23.0

22.6

19.1

28.5

23.6

18.4

14.2

Poland

264.3

585.8

70.3

45.3

36.9

33.2

28.1

19.8

15.1

11.7

Romania

1.1

5.1

170.2

210.7

256.2

137.1

32.2

38.8

154.9

59.3

Slovakia

1.3

10.4

61.2

10.2

23.1

13.4

10.0

6.1

6.1

6.7

Slovenia

1 285.3

551.6

115.0

207.3

31.7

21.0

13.5

9.9

8.4

7.9

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia a

1 246.0

608.4

114.9

1 505.5

353.1

121.0

16.9

4.1

3.6

1.0

Yugoslavia

1 265.0

580.0

122.0

8 926.0

2.2E+14

7.9E+10

71.8

90.5

23.2

30.4

Estonia

4.0

18.0

202.0

1 078.2

89.6

47.9

28.9

23.1

11.1

10.6

Latvia

5.2

10.9

172.2

951.2

109.1

35.7

25.0

17.7

8.5

4.7

Lithuania

2.1

9.1

216.4

1 020.5

410.1

72.0

39.5

24.7

8.8

5.1

Armenia

0.8

6.9

174.1

728.7

3 731.8

4 964.0

175.5

18.7

13.8

8.7

Azerbaijan

0.5

6.1

106.6

912.6

1 129.7

1 663.9

411.5

19.8

3.6

-0.8

Belarus

1.7

5.5

98.6

971.2

1 190.9

2 219.6

709.3

52.7

63.9

73.2

Georgia

0.9

4.2

78.7

1 176.9

4 084.9

22 470.6

177.6

39.4

6.9

3.6

Kazakhstan

1.8

5.6

114.5

1 504.3

1 662.7

1 879.5

175.9

39.1

17.4

7.3

Kyrgyzstan

1.6

5.5

113.9

854.6

1 208.7

278.1

42.9

30.3

25.5

12.1

Republic of Moldova

1.1

5.7

114.4

1 308.0

1 751.0

486.4

29.9

23.5

11.8

7.7

Russian Federation

2.5

5.3

100.3

1 528.7

875.0

309.0

197.4

47.8

14.7

27.8

Tajikistan

1.7

5.9

112.9

822.0

2 884.8

350.3

682.1

422.4

85.4

43.1

Turkmenistan

2.5

5.7

88.5

483.2

3 128.4

2 562.1

1 105.3

714.0

83.7

16.8

Ukraine

2.0

5.4

94.0

1 209.6

4 734.9

891.2

376.7

80.2

15.9

10.6

Uzbekistan

0.7

5.8

97.3

414.5

1 231.8

1 550.0

315.5

56.3

73.2

17.7

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national statistics.

Note: From 1992 onwards indices derived from monthly data. Retail prices for Bulgaria and CIS countries for 1989.

a Retail prices.

APPENDIX TABLE B.8

Producer price indices in the ECE transition economies, 1989-1998
(Annual average, percentage change over preceding year)

 

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Albania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

129.5

70 374.7

10 967.6

1 184.8

68.7

- 4.8

3.2

3.6

Bulgaria

2.8

14.7

296.4

56.1

28.3

59.1

48.9

129.7

888.1

20.0

Croatia

1 346.7

455.3

146.3

826.0

1 510.4

77.7

0.8

1.3

3.7

- 1.5

Czech Republic

0.1

2.5

70.3

10.8

9.3

5.4

7.8

4.9

5.1

4.9

Hungary

15.4

22.0

32.6

12.3

14.1

12.3

28.5

22.3

20.9

11.4

Poland

212.8

622.4

40.9

28.0

32.6

31.0

26.0

13.4

12.2

7.2

Romania

..

26.9

220.1

184.8

165.0

140.7

35.3

50.0

150.5

33.6

Slovakia

0.0

5.2

68.9

5.3

17.0

10.0

9.1

4.0

4.6

3.3

Slovenia

1 413.3

390.4

124.1

215.7

23.3

17.8

12.4

6.7

6.1

6.0

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

1 357.0

393.8

112.0

2 193.5

258.6

88.7

4.7

- 0.1

4.2

4.2

Yugoslavia

1 301.0

468.0

124.0

8 993.0

1.4E+13

7.9E+10

75.7

88.8

20.6

25.9

Estonia

..

19.3

208.4

1 208.0

75.2

36.1

25.5

14.7

8.8

4.1

Latvia

..

..

192.0

1 310.0

117.1

17.0

12.0

13.8

4.3

2.0

Lithuania

..

..

148.2

1 510.0

391.7

44.7

28.7

16.5

6.0

- 3.8

Armenia

..

..

120.0

947.0

892.0

4 394.4

187.8

36.3

21.7

6.0

Azerbaijan

..

..

135.0

1 303.0

1 040.7

3 971.6

1 340.1

70.6

11.4

- 5.5

Belarus

..

..

150.0

2 326.7

1 536.3

3 362.1

538.6

35.7

89.4

72.8

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Kazakhstan

..

..

193.0

2 369.0

1 342.0

2 952.2

173.6

24.8

15.6

1.0

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

160.0

1 664.0

831.0

223.6

34.0

31.0

27.0

9.4

Republic of Moldova

..

..

130.0

1 210.9

1 078.5

711.7

52.2

30.2

14.9

9.7

Russian Federation

..

..

138.0

1 949.0

887.0

340.0

237.6

50.7

15.0

7.0

Tajikistan

..

..

163.0

1 316.5

1 080.0

665.5

351.7

342.2

107.2

28.4

Turkmenistan

..

..

211.0

994.0

1 610.0

911.0

296.5

2 974.9

260.6

- 30.5

Ukraine

..

..

122.0

2 668.8

4 698.3

901.2

450.8

54.6

15.1

13.2

Uzbekistan

..

..

147.0

1 296.0

1 119.0

2 162.6

792.5

128.5

53.9

40.5

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national statistics.

Note: Indices generally derived from monthly data from 1992 onwards for east European countries and from 1994 for Baltic and CIS countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.9

Nominal gross wages in industry in the ECE transition economies, 1990-1998
(Annual average, percentage change over preceding year) a

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Albania b

..

..

..

69.5

34.5

29.3

..

..

20.4

Bosnia and Herzegovina c

..

..

..

..

..

..

249.4

50.8

31.1

Bulgaria

20.8

175.5

132.8

55.1

53.9

57.7

95.0

909.3

..

Croatia c

453.7

40.7

466.7

1 444.1

130.5

44.0

11.8

16.3

..

Czech Republic

3.0

16.5

21.0

22.6

16.9

18.3

17.7

12.0

10.4

Hungary b

27.2

33.4

24.3

24.9

23.3

19.1

21.7

21.8

16.6

Poland c

365.5

64.0

41.2

37.8

39.8

30.1

25.8

19.9

17.2

Romania c

9.7

125.0

173.5

210.7

139.4

55.3

56.7

99.5

49.3

Slovakia b

4.3

15.0

16.9

23.1

17.7

15.2

14.6

11.1

8.0

Slovenia

361.5

68.4

196.7

45.1

27.1

17.1

14.0

12.1

10.7

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia c

433.6

79.2

1083.7

454.0

105.8

11.1

3.6

2.3

3.1

Yugoslavia c

400.0

100.6

4886.4

-62.5

229.6

74.1

74.5

41.7

39.6

Estonia d

..

122.2

570.3

93.3

71.3

34.6

23.8

19.7

..

Latvia

..

104.5

599.1

111.7

62.7

24.1

14.9

21.6

6.5

Lithuania

15.2

183.9

632.5

244.5

56.2

46.3

34.8

23.2

..

Armenia

6.0

46.9

341.1

737.3

3 345.9

203.9

78.8

31.6

..

Azerbaijan

4.4

82.9

870.4

700.8

575.7

354.8

53.0

36.8

..

Belarus

13.4

113.3

910.9

1 073.8

69.6

618.7

58.5

96.8

109.4

Georgia

6.0

33.9

457.3

2 114.7

23 327.5

87.5

145.4

12.7

26.8

Kazakhstan

11.0

91.5

1 056.0

1 008.6

1 422.8

178.2

30.9

22.5

2.7

Kyrgyzstan

0.5

62.1

638.3

745.6

176.3

54.8

29.1

60.3

-1.4

Republic of Moldova

14.2

90.1

815.0

773.0

284.4

43.8

32.2

24.9

16.6

Russian Federation

13.0

94.9

1 065.7

798.2

260.2

131.4

64.3

21.6

23.9

Tajikistan

8.0

76.2

550.2

917.5

142.2

139.2

418.3

85.4

72.7

Turkmenistan

..

83.8

1 010.1

1 467.7

622.2

686.2

915.3

121.5

25.4

Ukraine

..

107.6

1 421.7

2 296.2

747.0

403.5

107.1

17.0

..

Uzbekistan

..

82.3

706.1

1 159.3

806.8

278.4

99.8

76.3

60.3

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national statistics.

a Calculated from reported annual average wages.

b Gross wages in total economy. For Hungary for 1990-1992; for Slovakia for 1990-1991.

c Net wages in industry. For Poland and Romania for 1990-1992.

d Manufacturing for 1991-1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.10

Merchandise exports of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Billion dollars)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

56.367

60.117

63.550

65.020

63.850

61.733

57.241

59.333

62.675

72.937

94.777

100.206

107.372

119.324*

Albania

0.320

0.230

0.230

0.230

0.302

0.231

0.101

0.072

0.123

0.139

0.202

0.213

0.137

0.207

Bulgaria

7.160

7.599

7.841

7.554

6.651

5.232

3.433

3.992

3.769

3.935

5.345

4.890

4.940

4.293

Czechoslovakia

10.475

12.160

12.355

12.381

11.988

10.728

11.319

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Czech Republic

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.767

14.463

15.882

21.273

22.180

22.779

26.358

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.500

5.458

6.714

8.585

8.822

9.640

10.722

Hungary

8.609

9.170

9.584

9.999

9.673

9.731

10.226

10.681

8.921

10.701

12.867

15.704

19.100

23.005

Poland

13.071

13.130

14.095

14.573

14.665

18.291

14.912

13.187

14.202

17.240

22.887

24.440

25.756

28.229

Romania

9.217

8.159

8.580

8.971

8.076

4.570

4.266

4.363

4.892

6.151

7.910

8.085

8.431

8.300

Yugoslavia (SFR)

7.514

9.669

10.866

11.311

12.496

12.950

12.984

14.772

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

1.550

2.100

1.850

..

..

..

..

0.024

0.058

0.193

0.452

Croatia

..

..

..

2.300

2.600

4.020

3.310

4.353

3.709

4.260

4.633

4.512

4.171

4.541

Slovenia

1.836

2.567

2.757

3.278

3.408

4.118

3.874

6.681

6.083

6.828

8.316

8.310

8.369

9.050

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

..

..

..

..

0.654

1.113

1.095

1.199

1.055

1.086

1.204

1.147

1.180

1.310*

Yugoslavia

..

3.974

4.063

4.298

4.461

4.651

4.704

2.539

..

..

1.531

1.846

2.677

2.858

Baltic states

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2.139

4.197

4.324

5.844

6.877

8.467

8.759

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.444

0.802

1.305

1.838

2.079

2.934

3.236

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.843

1.401

0.988

1.304

1.443

1.673

1.812

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.852

1.994

2.031

2.705

3.355

3.860

3.711

CIS

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

51.110

52.516

62.654

80.007

87.892

88.693

75.608

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.026

0.030

0.058

0.101

0.157

0.138

0.120

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.754

0.351

0.378

0.352

0.341

0.403

0.374

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.860

1.061

0.758

1.032

1.776

1.888

1.922

1.910

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.068

0.069

0.039

0.057

0.070

0.102

0.084

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.398

1.501

1.357

2.367

2.732

3.515

3.239

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.077

0.112

0.117

0.140

0.112

0.285

0.283

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.167

0.178

0.160

0.279

0.252

0.267

0.203

Russian Federation a

..

..

..

..

..

..

47.266

42.376

44.297

53.001

65.607

70.975

69.954

57.700

Tajikistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.108

0.227

0.399

0.497

0.439

0.473

0.394

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.908

1.049

0.494

0.951

0.610

0.300

0.442

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.297

3.223

4.653

6.168

6.996

8.646

8.435

Uzbekistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.869

0.721

0.966

1.712

3.321

2.689

2.425

Former Soviet Union

57.942

60.043

63.406

62.016

62.286

59.056

46.660

53.733

56.713

66.978

85.851

94.769

97.160

84.367

Total

114.310

120.161

126.957

127.035

126.136

120.788

103.901

113.066

119.389

139.915

180.628

194.975

204.532

203.691*

Source: UN/ECE secretariat, based on national statistical publications and direct communications from national statistical offices.

Note: Data exclude intra-CIS trade, but now include the "new trade" among members of other recently dissolved federal states: former Czechoslovakia (from 1993), the former SFR of Yugoslavia (from 1992), and the trade of the Baltic states with the former USSR (from 1992). Data excluding the "new trade" were shown in earlier issues of this publication. Changes in the method of recording trade are reflected from 1993 in data for the Czech Republic (inclusion of OPT transactions, etc), from 1995 in Latvia (imports registered c.i.f.) and Lithuania (change from special to general system), from 1996 in Hungary (inclusion of trade flows of free trade zones) and from 1997 in Slovakia (inclusion of OPT transactions, etc.).

All trade values for the years 1991-1998 are expressed in dollars at prevailing market exchange rates. For earlier years, values reported in national currencies were adjusted by the UN/ECE secretariat to remove distortions stemming from mutually inconsistent national rouble/dollar cross-rates in the valuation of the then important intra-CMEA trade flows. For details on the revaluation, see the note to table 2.1.3 and the discussion in box 2.1.1 in UN/ECE, Economic Bulletin for Europe, Vol. 43 (1991).

a Data not adjusted for non-registered flows. Through 1997, GosTamkom data revised by the Russian Goskomstat and include off board sales of fish and other sea products as well as natural gas deliveries under debt repayment agreements with former CMEA countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.11

Merchandise imports of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Billion dollars)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

65.443

59.532

62.033

60.158

61.185

63.408

61.610

68.388

76.285

86.128

117.026

135.887

146.170

159.352*

Albania

0.320

0.230

0.230

0.280

0.385

0.381

0.409

0.524

0.421

0.549

0.650

0.913

0.620

0.795

Bulgaria

6.321

8.679

8.222

8.131

7.325

5.584

2.700

4.530

5.120

4.272

5.638

5.074

4.932

4.995

Czechoslovakia

10.619

10.277

12.503

12.180

11.772

11.808

10.962

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Czech Republic

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

10.368

14.617

17.427

25.265

27.919

27.563

28.822

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.889

6.332

6.634

8.777

11.112

11.622

12.892

Hungary

9.188

9.594

9.859

9.372

8.863

8.797

11.449

11.123

12.648

14.554

15.466

18.144

21.234

25.706

Poland

14.705

12.315

12.686

12.987

12.941

12.619

15.531

16.141

18.758

21.566

29.043

37.137

42.314

47.054

Romania

11.061

6.411

6.355

5.361

5.834

6.889

5.793

6.260

6.522

7.109

10.278

11.435

11.280

11.821

Yugoslavia (SFR)

13.229

12.026

12.178

11.847

14.064

17.330

14.765

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

1.300

1.850

1.750

..

..

..

..

0.524

1.204

1.555

2.025

Croatia

..

..

..

2.900

3.750

5.133

3.811

4.346

4.166

5.229

7.510

7.788

9.104

8.383

Slovenia

2.463

2.740

2.722

2.914

3.216

4.727

4.131

6.141

6.501

7.304

9.492

9.421

9.367

10.098

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

..

..

..

..

0.934

1.531

1.274

1.206

1.199

1.484

1.719

1.627

1.754

1.912*

Yugoslavia

..

4.753

4.851

4.915

5.383

6.701

5.548

3.859

..

..

2.665

4.113

4.826

4.849

Baltic states

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.802

4.101

5.251

8.006

10.110

12.809

13.768

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.406

0.896

1.659

2.540

3.231

4.441

4.786

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.794

0.961

1.240

1.818

2.320

2.724

3.189

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.602

2.244

2.352

3.649

4.559

5.644

5.794

CIS

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

42.203

33.354

36.745

45.680

49.196

57.775

50.469

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.050

0.086

0.188

0.340

0.568

0.594

0.672

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.333

0.241

0.292

0.439

0.621

0.443

0.673

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.751

0.779

0.975

1.887

2.369

2.872

2.995

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.227

0.167

0.065

0.233

0.417

0.600

0.676

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.469

0.494

1.384

1.154

1.295

1.969

2.240

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.071

0.112

0.108

0.169

0.351

0.273

0.401

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.179

0.184

0.183

0.272

0.420

0.567

0.584

Russian Federation a

..

..

..

..

..

..

39.294

36.984

26.807

28.344

33.117

32.798

39.363

32.400

Tajikistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.132

0.374

0.314

0.332

0.285

0.268

0.265

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.030

0.501

0.782

0.619

0.450

0.531

0.530

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2.049

2.651

2.908

5.488

6.427

7.249

6.779

Uzbekistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.929

0.958

1.202

1.630

3.195

3.047

2.256

Former Soviet Union

52.218

55.016

53.794

58.044

64.983

64.963

45.405

44.166

37.455

41.997

53.686

59.306

70.584

64.238

Total

117.661

114.548

115.827

118.202

126.168

128.371

106.901

112.554

113.740

128.124

170.712

195.192

216.755

223.590*

Source: UN/ECE secretariat, based on national statistical publications and direct communications from national statistical offices.

Note: See appendix table B.10.

a Data not adjusted for non-registered flows. Through 1997, GosTamkom data revised by the Russian Goskomstat and include off board sales of fish and other sea products as well as natural gas deliveries under debt repayment agreements with former CMEA countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.12

Balance of merchandise trade of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Billion dollars)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

-9.076

0.585

1.517

4.861

2.665

-1.675

-4.369

-9.055

-13.610

-13.190

-22.250

-35.680

-38.799

-40.029*

Albania

-

-

-

-0.050

-0.083

-0.150

-0.308

-0.452

-0.298

-0.410

-0.448

-0.701

-0.483

-0.589

Bulgaria

0.839

-1.080

-0.381

-0.577

-0.674

-0.352

0.732

-0.538

-1.352

-0.336

-0.293

-0.184

0.008

-0.702

Czechoslovakia

-0.144

1.882

-0.147

0.201

0.216

-1.080

0.356

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Czech Republic

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-1.601

-0.154

-1.545

-3.992

-5.739

-4.784

-2.464

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.389

-0.874

0.080

-0.192

-2.290

-1.983

-2.170

Hungary

-0.579

-0.423

-0.276

0.627

0.810

0.934

-1.223

-0.442

-3.727

-3.853

-2.599

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