• English

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

For the user's convenience, as well as to lighten the text, the Economic Survey of Europe includes a set of appendix tables showing time series for the main economic indicators over a longer period. The data are presented in two sections, following the structure of the text: Appendix A provides macroeconomic indicators for the market economies of western Europe and North America for 1984-1998, Appendix B does the same for the east European countries, the Baltic states and the Commonwealth of Independent States for 1980-1998.

Data for the ECE transition economies are preliminary because re-estimated historical series are not yet available for all countries, and longer time series could in some instances be obtained only by splicing older data with the new statistics (as explained in the notes to the tables).

Data were compiled from international and national statistical sources. Regional aggregations are ECE secretariat estimates based either on 1990-1991 or 1996 weights as noted in the footnotes to the tables. The figures for 1998 are based on data available to the secretariat at mid-June 1999.

In June 1996 the European Council decided to replace the previous European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (ESA) dating from 1979 (ESA79) by a new, more comprehensive system, ESA95. The ESA95 is fully compatible with the internationally agreed System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA93), which was already adopted by some ECE member countries.

Following these decisions, an increasing number of countries have started reporting national accounts data according to SNA93 or ESA95 definitions. In the appendix tables A.1 to A.11, mention is made of the countries and the periods for which the series comply with SNA93 or ESA95 definitions. The SNA93 and ESA95 introduce major methodological improvements and extend the coverage of the series compared with the previous national accounts systems - SNA68, ESA70 and ESA79. A note on the main differences will be included in a forthcoming issue of the Survey.

APPENDIX TABLE A.1

Real GDP in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

2.5

2.6

2.9

3.1

4.1

3.4

3.4

1.7

1.3

-

2.4

2.6

1.8

2.7

2.6

4 major countries

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.7

4.2

3.2

3.0

1.8

1.2

-0.3

2.7

2.2

1.2

2.1

2.2

France a

1.3

1.9

2.0

2.3

4.5

4.0

2.5

1.0

1.5

-0.9

2.1

1.7

1.1

2.0

3.2

Germany a b

2.8

2.0

2.3

1.5

3.7

3.6

5.7

5.1

2.2

-1.1

2.3

1.7

0.8

1.8

2.3

Italy

2.6

2.8

2.8

3.1

3.9

2.9

2.2

1.1

0.6

-1.2

2.2

2.9

0.9

1.5

1.4

United Kingdom a

2.4

3.8

4.2

4.4

5.2

2.1

0.6

-1.5

0.1

2.3

4.4

2.8

2.6

3.5

2.1

17 smaller countries

3.0

2.7

3.2

4.0

3.7

3.6

4.0

1.5

1.6

0.8

1.8

3.4

3.1

3.9

3.4

Austria

0.3

2.2

2.3

1.7

3.2

4.2

4.6

3.4

1.3

0.5

2.4

1.7

2.0

2.5

3.3

Belgium a

2.5

1.0

1.8

2.7

4.6

3.6

2.8

2.0

1.6

-1.5

3.0

2.6

0.9

3.2

2.9

Cyprus

8.8

4.7

3.8

7.0

8.5

7.9

7.4

0.6

9.8

0.7

5.9

6.1

2.0

2.5

5.0

Denmark a

4.4

4.3

3.6

0.3

1.2

0.3

1.2

1.4

1.3

0.8

5.8

3.0

3.3

3.1

2.9

Finland a

3.0

3.4

2.4

4.1

4.9

5.7

-

-5.9

-3.2

-0.6

3.7

3.9

4.1

5.5

4.7

Greece

2.8

3.1

1.6

-0.5

4.5

3.8

-

3.0

0.5

0.2

2.2

2.0

2.4

3.2

3.5

Iceland

4.1

3.3

6.3

8.5

-0.1

0.3

1.2

1.1

-3.4

1.0

3.7

1.0

5.6

5.4

5.0

Ireland

4.4

3.1

-0.4

4.7

5.2

5.8

8.5

2.0

4.2

3.1

7.3

11.1

7.4

9.8

10.0

Israel

2.2

3.6

3.6

6.2

3.4

1.4

6.3

5.7

6.8

3.4

6.9

7.2

4.7

2.7

2.0

Luxembourg

6.2

2.9

7.8

2.3

10.4

9.8

2.2

6.1

4.5

8.7

4.2

3.8

3.0

4.7

5.7

Malta

0.9

2.6

3.9

4.1

8.4

8.2

6.3

6.3

4.7

4.5

5.7

6.2

3.8

4.4

7.6

Netherlands

3.3

3.1

2.8

1.4

2.6

4.7

4.1

2.3

2.0

0.8

3.2

2.3

3.1

3.6

3.7

Norway a

5.9

5.2

3.6

2.0

-0.1

0.9

2.0

3.1

3.3

2.7

5.5

3.8

4.9

4.3

2.1

Portugal

-1.9

2.8

4.1

6.4

7.5

5.1

4.4

2.3

2.5

-1.1

2.2

2.9

3.2

3.7

3.9

Spain

1.5

1.7

3.2

5.6

5.2

4.7

3.7

2.3

0.7

-1.2

2.2

2.7

2.4

3.5

3.8

Sweden

4.0

1.9

2.3

3.1

2.3

2.4

1.4

-1.1

-1.4

-2.2

3.3

3.9

1.3

1.8

2.9

Switzerland

3.0

3.4

1.6

0.7

3.1

4.3

3.7

-0.8

-0.1

-0.5

0.5

0.6

0.3

1.7

2.1

Turkey

6.7

4.2

7.0

9.5

2.1

0.3

9.3

0.9

6.0

8.0

-5.5

7.2

7.0

7.5

2.8

North America

6.7

3.9

3.0

3.0

3.9

3.3

1.2

-1.0

2.6

2.3

3.6

2.3

3.3

3.9

3.8

Canada a

5.7

5.4

2.6

4.1

4.9

2.5

0.3

-1.9

0.9

2.3

4.7

2.8

1.7

4.0

3.1

United States

6.8

3.7

3.0

2.9

3.8

3.4

1.3

-1.0

2.7

2.3

3.5

2.3

3.4

3.9

3.9

Total above

4.6

3.2

3.0

3.1

4.0

3.3

2.3

0.3

2.0

1.2

3.0

2.5

2.6

3.3

3.2

Japan

3.9

4.4

2.9

4.2

6.2

4.8

5.1

3.8

1.0

0.3

0.6

1.5

5.0

1.4

-2.8

Total above, including Japan

4.5

3.4

2.9

3.2

4.3

3.6

2.7

0.9

1.8

1.0

2.6

2.3

3.0

3.0

2.3

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.9

4.2

3.5

3.1

1.8

1.1

-0.4

2.8

2.4

1.6

2.5

2.7

Euro area

2.1

2.2

2.5

2.7

4.2

3.9

3.7

2.5

1.4

-0.9

2.4

2.3

1.4

2.3

2.7

Source: National statistics.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel. Growth rates of regional aggregates have been calculated as weighted averages of growth rates in individual countries. Weights were derived from 1991 GDP data converted from national currency units into dollars using purchasing power parities.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.2

Real private consumption expenditure in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.8

2.5

4.0

3.6

3.7

3.1

3.4

2.2

1.7

-

1.3

1.8

2.0

2.3

2.6

4 major countries

1.8

2.7

4.2

3.8

4.1

3.1

3.1

2.2

1.5

-0.2

1.4

1.6

1.5

1.7

2.4

France a

1.1

2.4

2.9

2.6

2.2

2.8

2.6

0.7

0.9

-0.4

1.2

1.2

1.3

0.2

3.4

Germany a b

1.8

1.7

3.5

3.4

2.7

2.8

5.4

5.6

2.8

0.2

1.0

1.9

0.9

0.7

1.8

Italy

2.5

3.1

4.2

4.3

4.6

3.6

2.5

2.7

1.3

-3.4

0.9

1.4

0.8

2.6

1.9

United Kingdom a

1.9

3.9

6.6

5.4

7.6

3.3

0.7

-1.7

0.4

2.9

2.9

1.7

3.6

4.0

2.7

17 smaller countries

1.7

2.3

3.6

3.0

2.9

3.1

4.1

2.3

2.0

0.5

1.1

2.3

3.0

3.5

3.1

Austria

-1.3

1.9

2.2

2.9

3.3

3.7

3.8

2.8

3.0

0.7

1.8

2.9

2.0

0.7

1.7

Belgium a

0.7

2.0

3.1

1.8

3.7

3.9

3.2

3.0

2.2

-1.0

2.0

0.8

1.1

2.3

3.4

Cyprus

4.5

5.9

1.7

5.5

10.5

6.9

9.0

9.9

3.2

-4.8

4.2

10.6

2.8

2.4

7.0

Denmark a

3.4

5.0

5.7

-1.5

-1.0

-0.3

0.3

1.8

2.6

1.4

7.1

3.3

2.7

3.6

3.5

Finland a

3.1

3.7

4.0

5.2

5.1

4.3

-

-3.5

-4.5

-3.2

2.5

4.3

3.5

2.6

4.5

Greece

1.7

3.9

0.7

1.2

3.6

6.1

2.6

2.8

1.8

0.1

1.5

1.6

1.9

2.5

1.8

Iceland

3.7

4.2

6.9

16.2

-3.8

-4.2

0.5

4.1

-4.5

-4.5

1.9

4.2

6.4

6.0

11.0

Ireland

2.0

4.6

2.0

3.3

4.5

6.5

1.4

2.1

4.6

2.4

6.3

4.1

6.1

6.3

8.8

Israel

-6.9

0.7

15.1

8.9

4.5

0.4

5.6

7.2

8.0

7.3

9.5

7.2

5.0

4.1

3.3

Luxembourg

1.4

2.7

5.7

4.6

4.6

5.1

5.7

6.3

-0.9

1.7

2.4

2.4

1.9

2.5

3.8

Malta

4.0

5.0

1.4

0.5

9.0

9.2

3.8

3.8

4.3

0.8

2.3

10.5

7.7

2.4

2.9

Netherlands

1.2

2.8

2.6

2.7

0.8

3.5

4.2

3.1

2.5

1.0

2.2

2.0

2.7

3.0

4.4

Norway a

3.2

9.4

5.0

-0.8

-2.0

-0.6

0.7

1.5

2.2

2.2

4.0

3.4

5.3

3.7

3.1

Portugal

-2.9

0.7

5.6

5.3

6.9

2.6

5.9

3.7

4.3

1.5

2.2

1.6

2.5

3.0

5.2

Spain

-0.1

2.0

3.3

5.8

4.9

5.7

3.6

2.9

2.2

-2.2

0.9

1.6

1.9

3.1

3.8

Sweden

1.4

2.7

4.4

4.6

2.4

1.2

-0.4

0.9

-1.4

-3.1

1.8

0.8

1.3

2.0

2.6

Switzerland

1.3

1.6

2.3

2.2

1.7

2.3

1.2

1.7

0.1

-0.9

1.0

0.5

0.5

1.8

1.8

Turkey

8.1

-0.6

5.8

-0.3

1.2

-1.0

13.1

1.9

4.0

8.6

-5.4

4.8

8.5

8.4

0.1

North America

5.1

4.7

4.0

3.2

4.0

2.4

1.6

-0.7

2.7

2.8

3.3

2.6

3.1

3.5

4.7

Canada a

4.5

5.2

4.0

4.1

4.4

3.6

1.3

-1.4

1.8

1.8

3.1

2.1

2.5

4.2

2.8

United States

5.2

4.7

4.0

3.1

3.9

2.3

1.7

-0.6

2.8

2.9

3.3

2.7

3.2

3.4

4.9

Total above

3.4

3.6

4.0

3.4

3.8

2.8

2.5

0.8

2.2

1.4

2.3

2.2

2.6

2.9

3.7

Japan

2.6

3.3

3.5

4.2

5.3

4.8

4.4

2.5

2.1

1.2

1.9

2.1

2.9

1.0

-1.1

Total above, including Japan

3.3

3.6

3.9

3.5

4.1

3.1

2.8

1.0

2.2

1.4

2.2

2.2

2.6

2.6

2.9

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.5

2.6

3.9

3.8

3.9

3.4

3.0

2.3

1.6

-0.4

1.6

1.7

1.7

2.0

2.8

Euro area

1.3

2.3

3.4

3.7

3.4

3.5

3.7

3.1

1.9

-1.0

1.2

1.7

1.3

1.6

2.8

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.3

Real general government consumption expenditure in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.7

3.0

2.9

2.7

2.2

1.4

2.7

2.4

2.6

1.5

0.8

1.0

1.7

0.4

1.4

4 major countries

1.8

1.9

2.3

1.7

2.3

0.2

2.0

1.8

2.9

1.1

1.1

0.5

1.4

-

0.9

France a

1.2

2.3

2.6

1.9

4.1

1.6

1.9

2.7

3.8

4.6

0.7

-0.1

2.3

1.7

1.1

Germany a b

2.5

2.1

2.5

1.5

2.1

-1.6

2.2

0.4

5.0

0.1

2.4

1.5

1.3

-0.6

-0.1

Italy

2.1

3.1

2.5

3.2

2.7

0.9

1.2

1.7

1.2

0.5

-0.6

-1.1

0.3

-0.8

1.4

United Kingdom a

1.0

-0.1

1.6

-

-

0.8

2.5

2.9

0.5

-0.8

1.4

1.6

1.7

-

1.5

17 smaller countries

1.5

5.1

4.1

4.7

2.1

3.7

4.2

3.8

2.0

2.4

0.2

1.8

2.3

1.1

2.3

Austria

0.8

1.3

1.8

0.2

1.1

1.4

1.3

2.2

2.0

2.7

2.5

-

0.6

-3.9

1.3

Belgium a

0.6

2.5

1.4

2.8

-0.7

0.8

-0.4

3.9

1.4

-0.2

1.5

1.0

2.3

-0.5

2.4

Cyprus

3.8

3.7

3.6

5.3

10.5

1.9

17.4

3.9

13.8

-14.3

4.1

2.9

11.9

3.4

7.7

Denmark a

-0.4

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.9

-0.8

-0.2

0.7

0.9

4.1

2.9

2.2

3.2

1.1

2.6

Finland a

2.7

4.5

3.1

4.3

2.3

2.3

3.8

2.0

-2.3

-4.3

0.3

2.0

2.5

2.9

0.4

Greece

3.0

3.2

-0.8

0.9

5.7

5.5

0.6

-1.5

-3.4

4.8

3.5

1.5

1.0

-0.4

0.4

Iceland

0.6

6.5

7.3

6.5

4.7

3.0

4.4

3.1

-0.8

2.3

3.7

1.3

1.0

3.1

3.0

Ireland

-0.7

1.8

2.6

-4.8

-5.0

-1.3

5.4

2.9

2.4

0.4

5.0

2.6

1.5

4.8

5.0

Israel

5.8

2.9

-9.7

18.3

-2.5

-8.6

7.7

4.1

1.4

4.2

-0.2

0.3

5.7

1.9

2.3

Luxembourg

2.2

2.0

2.7

4.7

4.9

3.9

3.1

3.9

1.5

3.7

2.0

2.2

3.3

8.4

4.0

Malta

-2.5

5.6

4.4

9.1

6.0

12.7

5.7

10.9

8.9

6.0

6.4

8.5

8.4

-1.2

-4.6

Netherlands

-

2.4

3.6

2.6

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.7

1.5

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.5

2.5

Norway a

0.8

2.4

1.9

4.6

-0.1

1.9

4.9

4.3

5.3

2.2

1.4

0.3

2.8

2.8

3.7

Portugal

0.2

6.4

7.2

3.8

8.6

6.6

5.4

10.3

1.1

0.9

2.1

2.2

2.0

2.5

3.3

Spain

2.5

6.0

5.4

8.9

4.0

8.3

6.6

5.6

4.0

2.4

-0.3

1.8

1.0

1.4

1.6

Sweden

2.3

2.4

1.3

1.0

0.6

2.1

2.6

2.8

-

0.2

-0.7

-0.9

-0.2

-2.1

1.8

Switzerland

1.7

3.3

3.3

1.6

4.5

5.3

5.4

3.4

0.8

-0.2

2.1

-0.2

1.3

0.1

0.6

Turkey

1.9

14.1

9.2

9.4

-1.1

0.8

8.0

4.5

2.8

8.6

-5.5

6.8

8.6

4.1

5.0

North America

1.6

4.8

4.3

2.1

2.2

2.7

2.4

1.1

-

-0.3

0.3

-0.3

0.5

1.2

1.1

Canada a

1.1

4.3

1.9

1.4

4.6

2.8

3.7

2.8

1.0

0.1

-1.2

-0.5

-1.1

-0.5

1.7

United States

1.6

4.8

4.6

2.2

2.0

2.7

2.3

1.0

-0.1

-0.3

0.4

-0.3

0.7

1.3

1.1

Total above

1.6

3.9

3.6

2.4

2.2

2.0

2.6

1.8

1.3

0.6

0.5

0.3

1.1

0.8

1.3

Japan

2.3

0.3

5.1

1.6

2.3

2.0

1.5

2.0

2.0

2.4

2.4

3.3

1.9

1.5

0.7

Total above, including Japan

1.7

3.3

3.9

2.3

2.2

2.0

2.4

1.8

1.4

0.9

0.8

0.8

1.2

0.9

1.2

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.7

2.4

2.6

2.4

2.3

1.3

2.4

2.3

2.6

1.2

1.1

0.7

1.4

0.2

1.2

Euro area

1.8

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.8

1.3

2.4

2.3

3.2

1.5

1.0

0.6

1.3

0.3

1.1

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.4

Real gross domestic fixed capital formation in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.3

2.9

4.3

7.2

8.2

6.6

4.4

-0.3

-0.3

-4.5

1.9

4.0

2.5

3.7

5.0

4 major countries

2.2

1.6

3.4

4.9

8.3

6.0

3.8

-0.1

0.5

-5.7

2.5

2.5

1.2

2.0

4.5

France a

-2.6

3.2

5.7

5.9

9.3

7.1

3.3

-1.5

-1.6

-6.4

1.5

2.0

-

0.5

5.7

Germany a b

0.1

-0.5

3.3

1.8

4.4

6.3

8.5

6.0

4.5

-4.5

4.0

-0.7

-0.9

0.6

1.8

Italy

3.4

0.5

2.0

4.4

6.9

4.4

3.6

0.8

-1.8

-12.8

0.5

7.1

1.9

0.8

3.5

United Kingdom a

9.3

4.0

2.1

8.9

14.8

5.9

-2.3

-8.7

-0.7

0.8

3.6

2.9

4.9

6.9

8.3

17 smaller countries

-0.5

5.5

6.3

11.8

7.8

7.8

5.6

-0.6

-2.0

-2.1

0.6

6.9

5.1

7.1

5.9

Austria

0.1

6.9

2.4

4.4

6.8

6.3

6.6

6.3

0.1

-2.0

8.4

1.2

2.5

2.8

5.0

Belgium a

2.5

3.9

3.2

6.2

15.7

12.6

8.5

-4.1

1.7

-3.1

-0.1

5.5

0.9

6.3

3.6

Cyprus

21.5

-7.7

-7.1

4.5

10.6

20.0

-2.8

-1.6

16.2

-12.8

-2.5

-1.7

7.8

-8.4

0.6

Denmark a

12.9

12.6

17.1

-3.8

-6.6

0.4

-1.0

-2.8

-1.1

-1.9

7.4

12.3

4.9

10.6

6.1

Finland a

-2.1

2.2

-0.4

4.9

9.8

14.8

-4.1

-18.6

-17.3

-16.7

-2.3

10.8

8.4

14.4

8.3

Greece

-5.7

5.2

-6.2

-5.1

8.9

7.1

5.0

4.8

-1.0

-1.8

1.2

5.9

8.8

9.6

9.8

Iceland

9.4

1.0

-1.6

18.8

-0.2

-7.9

3.0

2.0

-11.3

-11.4

-1.1

-2.8

26.5

11.2

23.4

Ireland

-2.5

-7.7

-2.8

-1.1

5.2

10.1

13.4

-6.6

-1.9

-3.6

12.2

10.9

13.6

10.9

11.5

Israel

-11.9

-9.2

7.4

6.1

1.6

-2.2

25.3

41.9

5.2

5.3

8.4

6.0

9.3

-2.3

-3.3

Luxembourg

0.1

-9.5

31.0

17.9

15.0

7.0

2.7

31.6

-9.0

28.4

-14.9

3.5

-1.7

15.2

9.7

Malta

-7.0

-4.0

-8.7

30.7

6.1

1.0

17.9

-

-0.2

11.1

8.5

17.8

-3.8

-7.6

-4.1

Netherlands

5.8

7.0

6.9

0.9

4.6

4.9

1.6

0.2

0.6

-2.8

2.2

4.8

5.4

6.8

3.9

Norway a

1.0

-4.0

7.6

0.3

-1.8

-6.9

-10.8

-0.4

-3.1

4.3

4.5

3.4

9.9

15.1

8.1

Portugal

-17.4

-3.5

10.9

18.0

14.8

4.4

7.6

3.5

4.8

-6.0

3.4

4.8

5.7

11.3

9.5

Spain

-6.9

6.1

9.9

14.0

13.9

13.6

6.6

1.6

-4.4

-10.5

2.4

7.8

1.8

5.1

9.1

Sweden

6.9

6.3

0.3

8.2

6.6

11.3

1.3

-8.9

-10.8

-17.2

2.0

12.4

3.7

-4.8

9.7

Switzerland

4.7

2.8

5.4

4.0

8.1

5.3

3.8

-2.9

-6.6

-2.7

6.5

1.9

-2.4

1.5

3.8

Turkey

0.9

11.5

8.4

45.1

-1.0

2.2

15.9

1.2

5.5

26.4

-16.0

9.1

14.1

14.8

-2.4

North America

14.6

6.4

2.2

1.2

2.2

2.3

-1.6

-6.4

4.7

4.5

6.6

4.5

7.7

7.7

9.2

Canada a

2.5

10.3

5.4

10.7

9.8

5.9

-3.6

-3.5

-1.3

-2.7

7.4

-1.9

6.5

13.9

3.6

United States

15.6

6.1

1.9

0.4

1.5

2.0

-1.4

-6.6

5.2

5.1

6.5

5.0

7.8

7.1

9.6

Total above

7.9

4.6

3.3

4.2

5.2

4.4

1.4

-3.3

2.2

-

4.2

4.2

5.1

5.7

7.1

Japan

4.3

5.0

4.8

9.1

11.5

8.2

8.5

3.3

-1.5

-2.0

-0.8

1.7

11.1

-1.9

-8.8

Total above, including Japan

7.3

4.7

3.5

5.0

6.2

5.0

2.5

-2.3

1.6

-0.3

3.5

3.8

6.0

4.5

4.6

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.2

2.6

4.1

5.6

8.7

7.0

4.1

-0.3

-0.4

-6.1

2.6

3.8

1.9

3.1

5.3

Euro area

-0.6

1.9

4.6

5.2

7.9

7.2

5.5

1.6

-

-7.2

2.3

3.5

1.1

2.3

4.5

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.5

Real total domestic demand in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

1.9

2.5

4.0

3.9

4.4

3.5

3.5

1.4

1.3

-0.9

1.7

2.6

1.5

2.6

3.3

4 major countries

2.0

2.2

3.7

3.5

4.8

3.1

2.8

1.5

1.4

-1.4

2.2

1.8

0.9

1.9

3.0

France a

0.4

2.5

3.6

3.1

4.4

3.5

2.6

0.4

0.5

-1.5

2.2

1.6

0.6

0.8

3.6

Germany a b

1.9

1.0

3.3

2.4

3.6

2.9

5.2

4.7

2.8

-1.0

2.2

1.7

0.3

1.0

2.6

Italy

3.0

3.0

3.5

4.3

4.0

3.1

2.6

1.8

0.7

-5.1

1.2

2.0

0.2

2.4

2.6

United Kingdom a

2.7

2.9

4.8

4.8

7.8

2.8

-0.3

-2.5

0.8

2.1

3.4

1.8

3.1

3.9

3.4

17 smaller countries

1.7

2.9

4.4

4.7

3.7

4.5

4.8

1.1

1.3

0.1

0.7

4.1

2.7

3.9

4.0

Austria

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.6

3.2

3.0

4.3

3.6

1.4

0.8

3.6

1.9

1.7

1.8

2.6

Belgium a

2.2

1.0

2.6

3.4

4.8

4.2

2.9

1.8

1.8

-1.5

2.1

2.0

0.7

2.3

4.2

Cyprus

9.3

2.2

-1.5

5.6

11.3

9.7

6.3

5.1

9.3

-9.5

6.7

7.8

4.5

0.7

5.6

Denmark a

5.4

5.4

6.2

-2.3

-1.2

0.3

-0.6

-0.1

1.7

0.5

7.2

4.9

3.3

4.5

4.8

Finland a

2.2

2.9

2.2

5.2

6.6

7.6

-1.3

-8.3

-6.1

-5.6

3.7

4.4

2.5

5.7

4.3

Greece

-0.2

5.6

-1.2

-1.5

7.3

5.3

2.8

3.7

0.4

0.4

1.8

3.2

3.0

3.5

3.3

Iceland

6.1

2.9

4.8

15.7

-0.9

-4.3

1.4

5.1

-5.3

-4.1

1.5

3.1

7.5

6.4

12.0

Ireland

1.1

1.2

1.2

-0.2

2.1

7.3

6.4

0.2

0.2

0.8

6.7

7.2

6.9

7.3

8.1

Israel

-1.9

-2.2

5.4

9.0

2.5

-2.8

9.3

12.1

5.3

6.8

5.3

6.9

5.6

1.4

0.9

Luxembourg

2.3

0.7

8.5

5.4

6.7

8.4

3.3

8.6

-1.5

9.4

-0.4

3.1

1.8

6.8

5.5

Malta

0.8

3.5

-

3.5

11.5

8.3

7.6

4.9

0.1

4.8

2.1

13.7

4.5

1.6

5.6

Netherlands

1.8

3.7

3.8

1.4

1.8

4.7

3.5

1.9

1.6

-1.0

3.0

2.3

3.0

3.6

4.0

Norway a

4.8

5.6

7.3

-0.8

-3.1

-2.0

-0.3

0.8

1.7

2.9

3.8

4.2

3.9

6.6

5.8

Portugal

-6.5

1.0

8.2

9.9

10.7

3.3

6.1

4.2

5.0

-1.3

3.0

3.0

2.8

5.2

6.5

Spain

-0.9

2.5

5.4

8.1

7.0

7.8

4.8

2.9

1.0

-4.2

1.3

3.2

1.6

2.9

4.9

Sweden

3.2

4.2

2.1

4.3

2.8

3.7

0.9

-2.1

-1.8

-5.2

2.5

2.6

0.1

0.4

3.9

Switzerland

3.2

1.9

4.5

2.0

2.6

4.1

3.9

-0.6

-2.7

-1.0

2.7

1.9

0.2

1.5

3.9

Turkey

6.4

3.2

7.0

8.9

-1.3

1.5

14.6

-0.9

5.9

14.2

-12.5

11.4

7.6

9.0

0.4

North America

7.5

4.3

3.4

2.9

3.1

2.8

0.8

-1.5

2.7

2.8

3.9

2.0

3.5

4.3

4.8

Canada a

4.7

5.8

3.4

4.7

5.3

4.1

-

-1.4

0.9

1.4

3.2

1.7

1.6

5.7

2.2

United States

7.7

4.1

3.4

2.7

2.9

2.7

0.9

-1.6

2.8

3.0

3.9

2.1

3.6

4.2

5.1

Total above

4.7

3.4

3.7

3.4

3.8

3.2

2.1

-0.1

2.0

1.0

2.8

2.3

2.5

3.5

4.1

Japan

3.2

3.8

3.9

5.1

7.4

5.6

5.2

2.9

0.4

0.1

1.0

2.3

5.7

0.1

-3.5

Total above, including Japan

4.4

3.4

3.7

3.7

4.3

3.6

2.6

0.4

1.8

0.8

2.5

2.3

3.0

2.9

2.9

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

1.6

2.4

3.8

3.8

4.8

3.7

3.0

1.5

1.2

-1.6

2.3

2.1

1.2

2.3

3.4

Euro area

1.3

2.1

3.7

3.8

4.4

3.9

3.7

2.4

1.4

-2.3

2.1

2.1

0.9

1.9

3.4

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.6

Real exports of goods and services in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

8.8

4.3

1.1

5.0

6.2

7.4

6.3

4.9

4.2

2.4

9.4

8.2

5.9

9.9

5.4

4 major countries

7.5

4.9

0.9

3.2

5.1

8.5

7.5

5.4

3.5

1.3

8.6

8.4

4.5

9.0

4.5

France a

7.0

1.9

-0.2

3.6

8.6

10.2

5.4

5.9

5.4

-

7.7

7.7

3.5

10.7

6.2

Germany a b

8.2

7.6

-0.6

0.4

5.5

10.2

11.0

12.6

-0.8

-5.5

7.6

5.8

5.3

10.9

6.5

Italy

7.9

3.5

0.8

4.4

5.0

7.7

7.1

0.1

6.8

9.8

10.3

12.0

1.6

5.0

1.3

United Kingdom a

6.6

6.0

4.5

5.9

0.6

4.8

4.9

-0.2

4.1

3.9

9.2

9.5

7.5

8.6

3.1

17 smaller countries

11.3

3.1

1.5

8.4

8.4

5.2

4.0

3.8

5.8

4.5

11.1

7.7

8.8

11.5

7.0

Austria

6.3

7.1

-2.3

3.1

10.2

11.3

7.9

5.9

1.7

-1.3

5.6

6.5

6.9

10.1

8.2

Belgium a

6.5

0.3

2.8

5.0

9.6

8.3

4.6

3.1

3.7

-0.4

8.4

5.7

1.2

7.1

3.4

Cyprus

15.1

-1.1

-1.7

13.7

13.5

16.8

7.9

-8.4

18.7

-1.3

7.9

4.6

3.7

2.1

-2.0

Denmark a

3.5

5.0

-

5.1

7.8

4.3

6.2

7.0

-0.5

0.1

8.2

4.4

3.7

5.5

0.1

Finland a

5.0

1.1

1.2

2.7

3.7

1.3

1.4

-7.3

10.4

16.7

13.1

8.7

6.1

14.2

8.3

Greece

16.9

1.3

14.0

16.0

9.0

4.6

-4.0

3.7

8.6

0.5

7.4

2.1

3.0

5.3

7.0

Iceland

2.4

11.1

5.9

3.3

-3.6

2.9

-

-5.9

-1.9

7.1

10.0

-2.2

10.0

5.6

2.6

Ireland

16.6

6.6

2.9

13.7

9.0

10.3

8.7

5.3

13.5

9.7

14.2

19.6

11.7

16.9

19.8

Israel

13.6

10.2

5.6

10.2

-1.5

4.0

2.0

-2.6

14.1

9.9

12.8

8.2

6.8

7.6

6.0

Luxembourg

18.0

9.5

3.3

4.4

11.7

8.1

3.4

6.7

4.8

2.8

4.4

4.4

2.3

7.5

8.3

Malta

4.0

7.4

7.0

12.6

6.1

10.7

13.3

7.5

9.7

5.3

7.1

5.4

-6.7

2.0

5.2

Netherlands

7.5

5.1

1.8

4.0

9.0

6.7

5.3

4.7

2.9

1.5

6.7

6.7

5.2

6.7

5.9

Norway a

7.9

7.2

2.2

1.1

6.4

11.0

8.6

6.1

5.2

3.2

8.7

4.3

9.3

5.7

0.5

Portugal

11.6

6.7

6.8

11.2

8.2

13.0

10.0

2.6

4.9

-3.6

8.7

9.1

10.2

8.4

9.3

Spain

11.7

2.7

1.9

6.3

5.1

3.0

3.2

7.9

7.4

8.5

16.7

10.0

10.6

14.8

7.8

Sweden

6.9

1.2

3.7

4.3

2.5

3.1

1.6

-2.3

2.3

7.6

14.0

12.9

6.1

12.8

7.4

Switzerland

7.5

8.0

-0.4

2.3

6.5

6.6

2.1

-2.1

3.0

1.5

1.8

1.6

3.0

9.1

4.1

Turkey

25.4

-1.9

-5.1

26.4

18.4

-0.3

3.1

3.1

11.0

7.7

15.2

8.0

22.0

19.1

10.5

North America

9.1

2.9

7.2

10.4

15.4

10.8

8.2

6.0

6.7

3.6

8.6

11.1

8.3

12.4

2.1

Canada a

18.6

5.5

5.2

3.3

9.5

1.3

4.7

2.3

7.9

10.9

13.1

9.0

5.8

8.5

8.2

United States

8.3

2.7

7.4

11.0

15.9

11.7

8.5

6.3

6.6

2.9

8.2

11.3

8.5

12.8

1.5

Total above

8.9

3.6

4.1

7.7

10.8

9.1

7.2

5.4

5.5

3.0

9.0

9.6

7.1

11.1

3.7

Japan

14.8

5.4

-5.7

-0.5

5.9

9.1

6.9

5.2

4.9

1.3

4.6

5.4

6.3

11.6

-2.3

Total above, including Japan

9.9

3.9

2.6

6.4

10.0

9.1

7.2

5.4

5.4

2.7

8.3

9.0

7.0

11.2

2.8

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

8.0

4.5

1.4

4.1

5.6

7.7

6.5

5.2

3.9

2.2

9.3

8.4

5.2

9.5

5.2

Euro area

8.2

4.4

0.5

3.4

6.6

8.5

7.2

6.4

3.9

1.7

9.3

8.3

4.8

9.7

5.6

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.7

Real imports of goods and services in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

6.6

4.3

5.4

9.2

7.8

8.7

7.6

3.9

4.2

-1.6

6.4

8.4

4.6

10.0

7.4

4 major countries

7.2

4.2

4.9

7.6

7.9

8.2

6.9

4.6

4.1

-3.9

7.0

7.1

3.1

9.2

7.0

France a

2.7

4.5

6.8

7.8

8.9

7.9

5.7

3.1

1.8

-3.7

8.2

8.0

1.6

6.2

8.7

Germany a b

5.2

4.5

2.7

4.2

5.1

8.3

10.3

13.1

1.5

-5.4

7.3

5.7

3.4

8.2

8.0

Italy

12.2

5.0

4.3

12.0

6.1

9.0

9.4

3.3

7.4

-8.8

6.8

9.6

-1.1

9.9

6.1

United Kingdom a

9.9

2.5

6.9

7.9

12.8

7.4

0.5

-5.0

6.8

3.2

5.4

5.5

9.1

13.4

4.6

17 smaller countries

5.4

4.6

6.3

12.3

7.8

9.7

9.1

2.6

4.5

3.0

5.3

11.2

7.5

11.4

8.0

Austria

10.0

6.2

-2.9

5.4

10.4

8.4

7.3

6.5

1.8

-0.7

8.3

7.0

6.3

8.7

6.9

Belgium a

6.3

0.2

4.5

6.7

10.4

9.6

4.8

2.8

4.1

-0.4

7.2

5.0

1.0

6.0

5.3

Cyprus

16.4

-4.5

-11.0

5.5

13.4

20.4

5.8

2.2

18.2

-18.1

8.2

11.5

6.8

1.3

3.6

Denmark a

5.5

8.1

6.8

-2.0

1.5

4.2

1.5

3.9

0.2

-1.2

13.2

9.9

3.7

9.8

4.7

Finland a

1.6

6.4

2.6

9.2

11.1

8.9

-0.6

-13.5

0.6

1.3

12.8

7.9

6.3

11.4

8.9

Greece

0.2

12.8

3.8

16.6

8.0

10.6

8.7

6.0

4.9

1.0

4.1

6.2

4.9

5.4

4.9

Iceland

9.1

9.4

0.9

23.3

-4.6

-10.3

1.0

5.7

-8.0

-8.6

4.2

3.8

16.6

8.5

22.1

Ireland

9.9

3.2

5.6

6.2

4.9

13.5

5.1

2.3

7.9

7.2

14.8

15.8

12.2

15.6

20.0

Israel

-1.1

-3.7

11.2

19.6

-2.8

-5.0

9.5

16.0

8.8

14.1

10.9

7.2

8.1

2.8

2.1

Luxembourg

13.9

7.0

3.8

7.5

8.2

6.6

4.5

9.0

-0.8

2.8

-0.1

3.8

1.0

10.0

8.5

Malta

3.9

9.2

0.1

12.3

11.1

11.1

15.7

5.4

3.0

5.9

7.5

10.0

-6.3

-2.4

1.6

Netherlands

5.0

6.3

3.5

4.2

7.6

6.7

4.2

4.1

2.1

-2.1

6.7

7.5

5.3

7.1

6.8

Norway a

5.8

8.9

11.8

-6.5

-2.4

2.2

2.5

0.2

0.7

4.4

4.9

5.6

8.0

12.0

9.1

Portugal

-4.4

1.4

16.9

23.1

18.0

6.1

14.0

7.3

10.7

-3.3

9.0

7.8

7.5

10.4

13.3

Spain

-1.8

8.0

14.4

20.1

14.4

17.3

7.8

9.0

6.9

-5.2

11.3

11.0

7.4

12.2

10.6

Sweden

5.4

7.8

4.5

7.7

5.3

7.4

0.7

-4.9

1.1

-2.5

13.2

10.2

3.7

11.7

11.1

Switzerland

8.3

3.7

8.1

6.2

5.2

5.9

2.6

-1.6

-4.2

0.1

7.9

5.1

2.7

8.9

8.8

Turkey

19.7

-6.6

-3.5

23.0

-4.5

6.9

33.1

-5.3

10.9

35.8

-21.9

29.6

20.5

22.4

2.2

North America

23.8

6.7

8.4

6.1

4.7

4.1

3.7

-0.3

7.4

9.0

11.6

8.6

9.0

13.9

10.2

Canada a

18.1

8.8

8.5

5.6

13.7

6.3

2.3

3.2

6.2

7.4

8.3

6.2

5.8

14.6

5.8

United States

24.3

6.5

8.4

6.1

3.9

3.9

3.9

-0.7

7.5

9.1

11.9

8.8

9.2

13.9

10.6

Total above

15.2

5.5

6.9

7.6

6.3

6.4

5.7

1.8

5.8

3.7

9.0

8.5

6.8

12.0

8.8

Japan

10.5

-1.4

1.9

9.5

20.9

18.6

7.9

-3.1

-0.7

-0.3

8.9

14.2

11.9

0.5

-7.7

Total above, including Japan

14.4

4.4

6.1

7.9

8.6

8.3

6.0

1.0

4.8

3.1

9.0

9.4

7.6

10.2

6.2

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union c

5.9

4.8

5.7

8.8

8.6

9.0

6.6

4.5

4.1

-3.5

7.8

7.6

3.8

9.4

7.5

Euro area

5.3

5.0

5.5

9.0

8.1

9.4

8.1

6.7

3.8

-4.9

8.0

7.9

2.8

8.6

8.1

Source: National statistics.

Note: See appendix table A.1.

a Data correspond to new SNA93 or ESA95 definitions: full period for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway and United Kingdom; 1985-1998 for Belgium and France; 1991-1998 for Germany.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.8

Industrial output in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

2.7

3.6

2.7

2.5

4.4

4.1

2.4

-0.2

-0.9

-2.7

4.5

3.9

0.5

4.1

2.9

4 major countries

1.9

3.6

2.2

1.8

4.8

3.8

2.0

-0.3

-1.3

-3.6

4.6

2.6

-0.2

2.9

2.8

France

0.3

2.1

0.6

1.2

4.6

3.7

1.5

-1.2

-1.2

-3.9

4.0

2.1

0.2

3.8

4.6

Germany a

3.0

4.8

1.8

0.4

3.6

4.9

5.2

2.4

-2.3

-7.6

3.6

1.2

0.6

3.5

4.2

Italy

3.3

1.4

4.1

2.6

6.9

3.9

-0.5

-0.9

-1.3

-2.1

6.2

6.1

-2.9

2.7

0.8

United Kingdom

-

5.5

2.5

4.0

4.8

2.1

-0.4

-3.4

0.4

2.2

5.4

1.7

1.1

0.8

0.5

13 smaller countries

4.5

3.5

3.7

4.1

3.5

4.7

3.4

-

-

-0.7

4.1

6.7

2.0

6.9

3.3

Austria

4.9

4.7

1.2

1.0

4.5

5.8

6.8

1.9

-1.2

-1.5

4.0

4.9

0.8

5.6

3.4

Belgium

2.5

2.5

0.8

2.1

5.8

3.4

3.7

-2.0

-

-5.2

1.9

9.0

0.2

12.2

-3.5

Finland

4.8

2.9

1.9

5.0

3.2

3.6

-0.6

-8.7

1.3

5.6

11.3

6.8

3.2

10.0

7.2

Greece

2.3

3.3

-0.3

-1.2

5.0

1.8

-2.4

-1.0

-1.1

-2.9

1.3

1.8

1.2

1.3

7.1

Ireland

9.9

3.4

2.2

8.9

10.7

11.6

4.7

3.3

9.1

5.6

11.9

18.9

8.0

15.3

15.7

Israel

..

..

3.6

4.8

-3.2

-1.6

8.1

6.7

8.2

6.7

7.5

8.4

14.2

16.2

..

Luxembourg

11.7

-1.1

1.9

-0.6

8.7

7.8

2.6

0.3

-0.8

-4.3

5.9

1.4

-1.9

7.2

4.5

Netherlands

5.0

4.8

0.2

1.1

0.1

5.1

2.4

1.8

-0.2

-1.1

4.9

4.8

3.8

2.6

1.1

Norway

6.5

5.7

4.7

6.2

2.8

9.4

2.3

2.6

5.7

3.8

6.9

5.9

5.2

3.5

-0.9

Portugal

2.5

-1.3

7.2

4.4

3.8

6.7

9.0

-

-2.3

-5.2

-0.2

4.7

1.3

2.5

4.0

Spain

0.9

1.8

3.3

4.6

3.1

5.1

-0.3

-0.7

-3.0

-4.7

7.6

4.8

-1.3

6.9

5.5

Sweden

5.6

2.9

0.2

2.8

2.9

2.9

0.3

-5.2

-1.7

-0.4

11.5

9.8

1.0

6.5

4.5

Switzerland

2.6

5.6

3.8

1.2

7.8

1.5

4.8

0.5

-1.0

-1.8

4.3

2.0

-

4.7

3.6

Turkey

11.0

5.9

11.7

10.6

1.6

3.6

9.5

2.7

5.0

8.0

-6.2

12.7

7.5

11.4

1.8

North America

9.3

2.0

1.0

4.6

4.7

1.6

-0.4

-2.2

3.0

3.5

5.5

4.9

4.2

6.0

3.5

Canada

12.6

5.4

-0.6

4.4

6.1

-0.4

-2.8

-3.8

1.1

4.5

6.4

4.7

1.3

5.2

2.4

United States

9.0

1.6

1.2

4.6

4.5

1.8

-0.2

-2.0

3.1

3.5

5.4

4.9

4.5

6.0

3.6

Total above

5.6

2.8

1.9

3.5

4.5

3.0

1.1

-1.1

0.8

0.1

4.9

4.3

2.1

4.9

3.2

Japan

9.3

3.7

-0.2

3.5

10.4

4.8

4.2

1.9

-5.8

-4.4

1.3

3.3

2.3

3.5

-6.4

Total above, including Japan

6.4

3.0

1.5

3.5

5.7

3.3

1.7

-0.5

-0.5

-0.8

4.2

4.1

2.2

4.7

1.3

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union b

2.2

3.4

2.2

2.1

4.5

4.1

2.0

-0.4

-1.3

-3.3

5.0

3.5

0.1

3.7

3.0

Euro area

2.6

3.0

2.2

1.8

4.5

4.5

2.5

0.3

-1.6

-4.4

4.8

3.7

-0.1

4.3

3.4

Source: National statistics; OECD, Main Economic Indicators (Paris), various issues.

Note: Growth rates of regional aggregates have been calculated as weighted averages of growth rates in individual countries. Weights were derived from GDP originating in industry in 1990. Data were converted from national currency units into dollars using GDP purchasing power parities.

a West Germany 1984-1991.

b Fourteen countries (excluding Denmark).

APPENDIX TABLE A.9

Total employment in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over preceding year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

0.6

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.6

1.7

1.6

0.4

-1.3

-1.7

0.1

1.0

0.8

0.3

1.2

4 major countries

0.9

0.7

0.7

0.9

1.6

1.6

1.5

-

-1.6

-1.8

-0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.6

France a

-0.9

-0.3

0.4

0.3

0.9

1.3

1.0

-0.1

-0.7

-1.7

-0.3

0.5

-0.2

0.1

1.0

Germany b

0.2

0.7

1.4

0.7

0.8

1.5

3.0

2.5

-1.6

-1.5

-0.3

-0.1

-0.8

-0.8

0.4

Italy a

0.4

0.9

0.8

0.4

0.9

0.2

0.9

0.8

-1.0

-2.9

-1.4

-0.3

-

-0.2

0.2

United Kingdom c

3.8

1.2

0.2

2.1

3.6

3.2

1.0

-3.2

-2.6

-1.3

0.6

1.1

2.4

1.9

0.9

17 smaller countries

0.1

1.2

1.6

1.8

1.6

1.9

1.7

0.9

-0.9

-1.5

0.8

2.0

1.6

0.4

2.1

Austria

-0.1

0.3

0.3

-0.1

0.3

1.4

1.9

1.6

0.4

-0.5

0.1

0.2

-0.5

0.3

0.9

Belgium c

-0.2

0.6

0.6

0.6

1.5

1.4

1.0

-

-0.5

-0.9

-0.2

0.5

0.6

0.8

1.1

Cyprus

3.8

3.7

1.1

3.1

4.7

3.9

2.8

0.6

4.1

-0.1

2.8

3.4

1.0

-0.2

..

Denmark

1.7

2.5

2.6

0.9

-0.6

-0.7

-0.7

-0.6

-0.8

-1.5

1.4

1.1

0.8

2.0

1.9

Finland

0.4

0.1

-0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

-0.5

-5.5

-7.3

-6.3

-1.2

1.7

1.1

2.3

2.2

Greece

0.4

1.0

0.3

-0.1

1.7

0.4

1.3

-2.3

1.3

1.0

1.9

0.9

1.2

-0.5

1.4

Iceland a

1.5

3.6

3.2

5.7

-3.0

-1.4

-1.0

-0.1

-1.4

-0.7

0.5

0.8

3.0

1.7

2.1

Ireland d

-1.9

-2.2

0.2

-0.1

1.0

-0.1

3.3

0.7

2.7

1.5

3.2

5.0

3.7

3.8

8.3

Israel

1.5

0.7

1.4

2.6

3.5

0.5

2.1

6.1

4.2

6.1

6.9

5.2

2.4

1.4

1.8

Luxembourg

0.6

0.9

2.5

2.7

3.0

3.4

4.2

4.1

2.5

1.8

2.5

2.5

2.8

3.2

4.5

Malta e

0.6

1.3

2.1

5.9

2.5

0.9

0.8

2.5

1.0

0.5

1.2

3.8

1.0

0.5

0.4

Netherlands a

0.1

1.9

2.1

1.7

1.6

1.9

2.3

1.3

1.0

-0.1

-0.4

1.4

2.0

2.6

2.7

Norway

0.6

2.7

3.0

2.1

-0.8

-2.8

-0.8

-0.8

-0.3

0.2

1.3

2.1

2.5

2.9

2.3

Portugal

-1.0

-0.5

2.7

2.3

2.2

1.9

1.7

2.7

-1.7

-2.0

-0.2

-0.7

0.7

1.9

2.8

Spain

-2.7

1.1

2.2

3.1

2.9

4.0

2.6

0.2

-1.9

-4.3

-0.9

2.7

2.9

3.0

3.4

Sweden

0.8

1.0

0.6

0.8

1.4

1.5

0.9

-1.5

-4.4

-5.2

-1.0

1.5

-0.5

-1.0

1.4

Switzerland

1.0

2.0

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.7

3.2

1.8

-1.5

-0.8

-0.1

0.1

0.3

-0.3

1.2

Turkey

1.5

1.7

1.8

2.3

1.5

2.0

1.8

3.1

0.2

0.2

2.8

3.7

2.0

-2.5

1.5

North America

4.6

2.5

1.8

2.9

3.0

2.5

0.6

-0.8

-0.2

1.8

2.5

2.3

1.8

2.5

2.6

Canada

2.7

3.0

3.0

2.7

3.2

2.1

0.6

-1.9

-0.6

1.3

2.1

1.6

1.3

1.9

2.8

United States f

4.8

2.4

1.7

2.9

2.9

2.5

0.6

-0.7

-0.1

1.8

2.5

2.4

1.9

2.6

2.6

Total above

2.2

1.5

1.4

1.9

2.2

2.0

1.2

-0.1

-0.8

-0.2

1.1

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.8

Japan

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.4

1.2

1.5

1.7

2.0

1.1

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.5

1.1

-0.6

Total above, including Japan

1.9

1.4

1.2

1.7

2.0

1.9

1.3

0.2

-0.5

-0.1

0.9

1.3

1.1

1.2

1.4

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Uniong

0.4

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.6

-0.1

1.6

-

-1.5

-2.0

-0.3

0.6

0.6

0.6

1.2

Euro area

-0.4

0.5

1.1

0.9

1.2

1.4

1.8

1.0

-1.2

-2.1

-0.6

0.4

0.2

0.4

1.2

Source: National statistics; OECD, National Accounts Detailed Tables, Vol. II, 1998 and OECD Economic Outlook, No. 64, December 1998 (Paris); UN/ECE secretariat estimates.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel. National accounts statistics, where available; otherwise annual labour force surveys. Unless otherwise indicated, the data refer to the annual average number of persons employed, i.e. no adjustment is made for part-time workers. Comparisons with previous years are limited due to changes in methodology: Belgium from 1986 onwards, Denmark and Norway from 1989 onwards, France, Finland and Germany from 1991 onwards because of the shift to SNA93 or ESA95 definitions; Israel (1986 and 1996) and Malta (1995).

a Full-time equivalent data.

b West Germany 1984-1991.

c June.

d Mid-April estimates.

e End of year.

f Full-time equivalent employees plus the number of self-employed persons (unpaid family workers are not included).

g Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.10

Standardized unemployment rates a in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Per cent of civilian labour force)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

9.3

9.4

9.4

9.3

8.7

8.1

7.6

8.0

8.9

10.2

10.6

10.1

10.1

10.0

9.3

4 major countries

9.0

9.3

9.3

9.2

8.5

7.9

7.3

7.9

8.8

9.9

10.1

9.8

10.1

10.1

9.6

France

9.7

10.1

10.2

10.4

9.8

9.3

9.0

9.5

10.4

11.7

12.3

11.7

12.4

12.3

11.7

Germany b

7.1

7.1

6.4

6.2

6.2

5.6

4.8

5.6

6.6

7.9

8.4

8.2

8.9

9.9

9.4

Italy

8.1

8.5

9.2

9.9

10.0

10.0

9.1

8.8

9.0

10.3

11.4

11.9

12.0

12.0

11.9

United Kingdom

11.1

11.5

11.5

10.6

8.7

7.3

7.1

8.8

10.1

10.5

9.6

8.7

8.2

7.0

6.3

17 smaller countries

9.7

9.6

9.6

9.4

9.0

8.4

7.9

8.2

9.1

10.7

11.2

10.4

10.1

9.7

8.9

Austria

3.8

3.6

3.1

3.8

3.6

3.1

3.2

3.5

3.6

4.0

3.8

3.9

4.4

4.5

4.7

Belgium

11.1

10.4

10.3

10.0

8.9

7.5

6.7

6.6

7.3

8.9

10.0

9.9

9.7

9.4

9.5

Cyprus c

3.3

3.3

3.7

3.4

2.8

2.3

1.8

3.0

1.8

2.6

2.7

2.6

3.1

3.4

3.3

Denmark

10.1

9.0

7.8

7.8

6.1

7.4

7.7

8.5

9.2

10.1

8.2

7.3

6.8

5.6

5.1

Finland

5.9

6.1

6.7

4.9

4.4

3.1

3.2

7.1

12.5

16.4

16.8

15.3

14.6

12.7

11.4

Greece

7.2

7.0

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.7

6.4

7.0

7.9

8.6

8.9

9.2

9.6

10.0

9.8

Iceland

1.3

0.9

0.6

0.5

1.2

1.7

1.8

1.5

3.1

4.4

4.8

5.0

4.4

3.9

2.8

Ireland

15.5

16.9

16.8

16.6

16.2

14.7

13.4

14.8

15.4

15.6

14.3

12.3

11.6

9.9

7.8

Israel

5.9

6.7

7.1

6.1

6.4

8.9

9.6

10.6

11.2

10.0

7.8

6.9

6.7

7.7

8.6

Luxembourg

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.5

2.0

1.8

1.7

1.7

2.1

2.7

3.2

2.9

3.0

2.8

2.8

Malta c

8.6

8.1

6.9

4.4

4.0

3.7

3.8

3.6

4.0

4.5

4.1

3.8

4.4

5.0

4.9

Netherlands

9.3

8.3

8.3

8.0

7.6

6.9

6.2

5.8

5.6

6.6

7.1

6.9

6.3

5.2

4.0

Norway

3.2

2.7

2.0

2.1

3.2

5.0

5.3

5.6

6.0

6.1

5.5

5.0

4.9

4.1

3.3

Portugal

8.5

8.7

8.4

6.9

5.5

4.9

4.6

4.0

4.2

5.7

7.0

7.3

7.3

6.8

4.9

Spain

20.3

21.7

21.2

20.6

19.5

17.2

16.2

16.4

18.4

22.7

24.1

22.9

22.2

20.8

18.8

Sweden

3.3

2.9

2.7

2.2

1.8

1.6

1.7

3.1

5.6

9.1

9.4

8.8

9.6

9.9

8.3

Switzerland

1.0

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.5

1.1

2.5

4.5

4.7

4.2

4.7

5.2

3.8

Turkey

7.6

7.1

7.9

8.3

8.4

8.6

8.0

7.9

8.0

7.7

8.1

6.9

6.0

6.4

6.8

North America

7.9

7.5

7.3

6.5

5.7

5.5

5.9

7.2

7.9

7.4

6.5

6.0

5.8

5.4

4.9

Canada

11.3

10.5

9.6

8.8

7.8

7.5

8.2

10.4

11.3

11.2

10.4

9.5

9.7

9.2

8.3

United States

7.5

7.2

7.0

6.2

5.5

5.3

5.6

6.8

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

Total above

8.7

8.6

8.5

8.1

7.4

7.0

6.8

7.7

8.5

9.0

8.8

8.3

8.3

8.0

7.4

Japan

2.7

2.6

2.8

2.8

2.5

2.3

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

3.4

3.4

4.1

Total above, including Japan

7.7

7.6

7.5

7.2

6.6

6.2

6.1

6.8

7.4

7.9

7.9

7.5

7.5

7.2

6.9

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union d

9.8

10.0

9.9

9.7

9.1

8.3

7.7

8.2

9.2

10.7

11.1

10.7

10.8

10.6

9.9

Euro area

9.8

10.1

10.0

10.0

9.6

8.9

8.2

8.3

9.2

10.9

11.6

11.4

11.6

11.6

10.9

Source: National statistics; OECD, Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, No. 4, 1998, Main Economic Indicators, various issues and OECD Economic Outlook, No. 64, December 1998 (Paris); UN/ECE secretariat estimates.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel. Comparisons with previous years are limited by changes in methodology in Austria (1994), Germany (1984), Israel (1985 and 1995), Italy (1993), Malta (1994), Portugal (1992) and the United States (1990 and 1994).

a ILO definition, except for Austria (1984-1992), Cyprus, Denmark (1984-1987), Iceland, Israel, Malta, Switzerland and Turkey.

b West Germany 1984-1990.

c End of year.

d Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE A.11

Consumer prices in the ECE market economies, 1984-1998
(Percentage change over previous year)

 

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Western Europe

6.7

5.8

3.5

3.2

3.5

5.0

5.4

5.0

4.3

3.5

2.9

3.0

2.3

1.9

1.6

4 major countries

6.0

5.4

2.7

2.8

3.2

4.9

5.0

4.7

4.2

3.2

2.7

3.0

2.4

1.9

1.6

France

7.4

5.8

2.7

3.1

2.7

3.6

3.3

3.2

2.4

2.1

1.7

1.7

2.0

1.2

0.7

Germany a

2.3

2.2

-0.2

0.3

1.2

2.8

2.7

3.6

5.1

4.5

2.7

1.8

1.5

1.8

0.9

Italy

10.6

8.6

6.1

4.6

5.0

6.6

6.1

6.5

5.3

4.2

3.9

5.4

3.9

1.7

1.8

United Kingdom

5.0

6.1

3.4

4.1

4.9

7.8

9.5

5.9

3.7

1.6

2.4

3.5

2.4

3.1

3.4

16 smaller countries

8.4

6.8

5.2

4.0

4.1

5.3

6.2

5.8

4.5

4.0

3.3

3.0

2.3

1.8

1.5

Austria

5.6

3.2

1.7

1.4

2.0

2.5

3.2

3.4

4.0

3.7

3.0

2.2

1.9

1.3

0.9

Belgium

6.4

4.9

1.3

1.5

1.1

3.2

3.4

3.2

2.4

2.8

2.4

1.5

2.0

1.6

1.0

Cyprus

6.0

5.1

1.2

2.8

3.4

3.8

4.5

5.0

6.5

4.9

4.7

2.6

2.9

3.6

2.2

Denmark

6.3

4.7

3.6

4.0

4.6

4.8

2.7

2.4

2.1

1.3

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.2

1.9

Finland

7.1

5.9

2.9

4.1

5.1

6.6

6.2

4.3

3.0

2.1

1.1

1.0

0.5

1.2

1.4

Greece

18.4

19.3

23.0

16.4

13.5

13.7

20.4

19.5

15.9

14.4

10.7

8.8

8.3

5.5

4.8

Iceland

29.2

32.6

22.7

18.8

19.1

20.8

15.4

6.8

3.7

4.1

1.5

1.7

2.3

1.8

1.7

Ireland

8.6

5.5

3.8

3.1

2.1

4.1

3.3

3.2

3.1

1.4

2.3

2.5

1.7

1.4

2.4

Israel

373.8

304.6

48.1

19.9

16.3

20.2

17.2

19.0

12.0

11.0

12.3

10.1

11.3

9.0

5.4

Luxembourg

6.4

4.1

0.3

-0.1

1.4

3.4

3.3

3.1

3.2

3.6

2.2

1.9

1.3

1.4

1.0

Malta

-0.4

-0.3

2.0

0.5

0.9

0.9

3.0

2.5

1.6

4.1

4.1

4.0

2.5

3.2

2.2

Netherlands

3.1

2.3

0.2

-0.8

0.7

1.1

2.5

3.1

3.2

2.6

2.7

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.0

Norway

6.2

5.7

7.2

8.7

6.7

4.6

4.1

3.4

2.3

2.3

1.4

2.4

1.3

2.6

2.3

Portugal

28.9

19.6

11.8

9.4

9.7

12.6

13.4

10.5

9.4

6.7

5.4

4.2

3.1

2.3

2.8

Spain

11.3

8.8

8.8

5.2

4.8

6.9

6.7

5.9

5.9

4.6

4.8

4.6

3.6

2.0

1.8

Sweden

8.0

7.4

4.2

4.2

5.8

6.5

10.4

9.4

2.2

4.7

2.2

2.5

0.5

0.5

-0.1

Switzerland

2.9

3.5

0.8

1.4

1.9

3.1

5.4

5.9

4.0

3.3

0.9

1.8

0.8

0.5

0.1

Turkey

48.3

45.0

34.6

38.8

68.8

63.3

60.3

66.0

70.1

66.1

105.2

88.0

79.8

84.8

86.2

North America

4.3

3.6

2.1

3.7

4.1

4.8

5.4

4.3

2.9

2.9

2.4

2.8

2.8

2.2

1.5

Canada

4.3

4.0

4.1

4.4

4.0

5.0

4.8

5.6

1.5

1.8

0.2

2.2

1.6

1.6

0.9

United States

4.3

3.6

1.9

3.6

4.1

4.8

5.4

4.2

3.0

3.0

2.6

2.8

3.0

2.3

1.6

Total above

5.6

4.7

2.8

3.4

3.8

4.9

5.4

4.7

3.6

3.2

2.6

2.9

2.6

2.1

1.5

Japan

2.3

2.0

0.7

-

0.7

2.4

3.1

3.2

1.7

1.3

0.7

-0.1

0.1

1.8

0.6

Total above, including Japan

5.0

4.3

2.4

2.8

3.3

4.5

5.0

4.4

3.3

2.9

2.3

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.4

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union b

6.9

5.9

3.5

3.1

3.5

5.1

5.4

5.0

4.3

3.5

2.9

3.0

2.4

1.9

1.6

Euro area

7.0

5.5

3.1

2.6

2.9

4.4

4.2

4.4

4.4

3.6

2.9

2.9

2.4

1.7

1.3

Source: National statistics.

Note: All aggregates exclude Israel and Turkey.

a West Germany 1984-1991.

b Fifteen countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.1

Real GDP/NMP in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

88.7

94.8

97.8

99.4

100.8

100.0

93.2

82.9

78.9

78.7

81.9

86.7

90.0

92.0

93.4

Albania

79.4

88.2

93.1

92.4

91.0

100.0

90.0

64.8

60.1

65.9

71.4

80.9

88.2

82.0

88.6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bulgaria

76.2

89.9

93.6

99.3

101.9

100.0

90.9

83.3

77.2

76.1

77.5

79.7

71.6

66.6

69.0

Croatia a

99.0

99.8

102.6

102.5

101.6

100.0

92.9

73.3

64.7

59.5

63.0

67.3

71.4

76.0

78.1

Czech Republic

..

91.3

93.2

93.7

95.7

100.0

98.8

87.4

84.6

85.0

87.8

93.4

97.0

98.0

95.3

Hungary

86.3

94.1

95.5

99.4

99.3

100.0

96.5

85.0

82.4

81.9

84.4

85.6

86.8

90.7

95.3

Poland

91.1

90.3

94.1

95.9

99.8

100.0

88.4

82.2

84.4

87.6

92.1

98.6

104.5

111.7

117.1

Romania

88.5

103.4

105.8

106.7

106.2

100.0

94.4

82.2

75.0

76.2

79.2

84.8

88.2

82.1

76.1

Slovakia

..

91.0

94.8

97.1

99.0

100.0

97.5

83.3

77.9

75.1

78.7

84.2

89.7

95.6

99.8

Slovenia

98.9

100.9

104.1

103.5

100.5

100.0

91.9

83.7

79.1

81.4

85.7

89.3

92.4

96.6

100.4

The former Yugoslav

Republic of Macedonia

93.3

96.0

102.7

101.4

98.1

100.0

89.8

83.5

76.8

69.9

68.6

67.8

68.3

69.3

71.4

Yugoslavia a

95.7

98.7

101.4

100.2

98.8

100.0

92.1

81.4

58.7

40.6

41.7

44.2

46.8

50.3

51.6

Baltic states

67.8

81.4

85.6

89.0

96.0

100.0

97.8

89.9

67.9

58.2

55.2

56.4

58.8

63.7

66.5

Estonia

74.5

85.7

88.2

89.2

93.8

100.0

91.9

82.7

71.0

65.0

63.7

66.4

69.0

76.3

79.4

Latvia

68.5

81.3

85.1

89.0

93.6

100.0

102.9

92.2

60.1

51.1

51.5

51.0

52.7

57.3

59.3

Lithuania

64.7

79.8

84.9

88.9

98.4

100.0

96.7

91.2

71.8

60.2

54.3

56.1

58.7

63.0

66.2

CIS b c

77.5

90.4

92.4

93.9

98.1

100.0

96.8

90.9

78.0

70.4

60.3

56.9

55.0

55.5

54.0

Armenia

73.5

95.9

97.7

94.5

92.2

100.0

94.5

83.4

48.6

44.3

46.7

49.9

52.8

54.5

58.4

Azerbaijan

79.6

98.8

100.6

105.1

109.7

100.0

88.3

87.7

67.9

52.2

41.9

37.0

37.4

39.6

43.6

Belarus

65.7

85.2

88.9

91.3

92.4

100.0

98.0

96.8

87.5

80.8

70.6

63.3

65.1

72.5

78.5

Georgia

79.4

100.0

98.8

96.8

103.6

100.0

84.9

67.0

36.9

26.1

23.4

24.0

26.6

29.6

30.5

Kazakhstan

87.0

90.8

92.3

92.1

100.1

100.0

99.0

88.1

83.4

75.8

66.2

60.8

61.1

62.1

60.6

Kyrgyzstan

69.1

82.9

83.6

84.7

95.6

100.0

104.8

96.5

83.2

70.3

56.2

53.1

56.9

62.5

63.7

Republic of Moldova

72.1

82.6

89.2

90.3

91.9

100.0

97.6

80.5

57.2

56.5

39.0

38.3

35.3

35.9

32.8

Russian Federation

78.1

90.7

92.9

94.2

98.4

100.0

97.0

92.2

78.8

71.9

62.8

60.2

58.1

58.6

55.9

Tajikistan

80.8

91.8

95.0

93.9

106.9

100.0

100.2

91.7

62.1

52.0

40.9

35.8

29.8

30.3

32.0

Turkmenistan

80.7

89.5

93.4

97.1

107.5

100.0

101.8

97.0

82.5

83.7

69.2

64.2

68.5

60.7

63.8

Ukraine

75.0

88.7

90.0

93.4

95.2

100.0

96.4

88.0

79.2

68.0

52.4

46.0

41.4

40.1

39.4

Uzbekistan

76.0

88.1

88.0

88.4

97.0

100.0

99.2

98.7

87.7

85.7

81.2

80.5

81.9

86.1

89.9

Total above

80.3

91.4

93.7

95.2

98.7

100.0

95.9

88.8

78.0

72.3

65.9

64.7

64.2

65.3

64.5

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

88.6

92.2

95.1

97.3

99.6

100.0

93.3

84.1

83.2

84.6

88.2

93.3

97.7

102.6

105.8

SETE-7

88.8

99.3

102.4

103.1

102.9

100.0

93.1

80.7

71.4

68.4

70.8

75.2

76.6

73.6

71.7

Czechoslovakia b

84.9

92.7

95.1

97.0

99.3

100.0

98.5

84.4

78.8

..

..

..

..

..

..

Yugoslavia (SFR) a

97.7

99.5

103.0

101.0

99.4

100.0

92.4

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Former Soviet Union b

77.3

90.1

92.2

93.8

98.0

100.0

96.8

90.8

77.7

70.1

60.2

56.9

55.1

55.8

54.3

Former GDR

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

84.5

68.3

73.6

80.4

88.2

92.0

95.0

96.6

98.5

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics (IMF and World Bank data for Albania).

Note: Data for the east European countries are based on a GDP measure, except where otherwise mentioned. For the countries of the former Soviet Union, NMP data for 1980-1990 were chain-linked to GDP data from 1990. Country indices were aggregated with previous year PPP-based weights obtained from the European Comparison Programme for 1996.

a Gross material product (1980-1989 for Croatia).

b Sum of individual country data for former members.

c Net material product for 1980-1990 (until 1992 in the case of Turkmenistan).

APPENDIX TABLE B.2

Real total consumption expenditure in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100 or earliest year available thereafter)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

100.6

92.3

89.4

86.2

82.3

80.7

75.3

64.0

..

Croatia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

87.2

85.3

92.0

106.6

109.2

..

..

Czech Republic

..

..

..

91.3

93.1

100.0

104.9

81.0

88.2

90.4

92.6

96.5

102.5

103.2

101.7

Hungary

92.2

99.2

101.5

104.9

102.0

100.0

97.3

92.2

92.8

97.9

95.6

89.3

86.6

88.6

..

Poland

108.0

105.1

109.3

111.8

114.7

100.0

88.3

94.9

98.2

103.0

106.9

110.4

118.4

125.6

..

Romania

83.9

85.4

85.8

88.7

90.6

100.0

108.9

96.0

90.7

91.8

95.3

105.5

112.9

108.0

104.1

Slovakia

..

81.8

85.4

89.2

92.1

100.0

103.3

76.9

75.6

74.3

71.6

73.9

82.0

85.5

88.5

Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

91.6

88.8

99.1

102.6

110.2

113.1

117.2

..

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

101.2

110.4

116.5

124.4

131.9

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

76.7

49.2

46.5

47.4

47.0

50.8

52.7

..

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

102.6

112.3

..

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

97.4

84.9

66.4

68.9

74.5

76.8

81.5

..

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

80.3

78.0

84.3

93.2

..

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

93.4

84.0

82.1

72.1

65.3

67.4

73.8

..

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

79.2

77.1

45.4

42.4

46.1

..

..

..

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

96.8

96.1

84.9

67.7

55.1

51.2

51.8

..

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

87.2

77.1

62.0

52.0

55.3

50.8

50.4

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

82.6

90.3

99.8

111.6

105.3

Russian Federation

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

93.9

89.0

88.1

85.4

83.1

81.3

82.7

80.6

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

94.3

88.6

72.0

65.0

62.6

57.4

59.3

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

APPENDIX TABLE B.3

Real gross fixed capital formation in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100 or earliest year available thereafter)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

100.0

80.0

74.1

61.2

61.9

71.8

56.6

44.1

..

Croatia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

88.5

94.5

93.6

108.2

..

..

..

Czech Republic

..

..

..

93.4

99.4

100.0

97.9

80.5

87.7

81.0

95.0

114.9

124.9

118.8

114.4

Hungary

114.7

94.6

100.8

110.7

100.6

100.0

92.9

83.1

81.0

82.6

92.9

88.9

94.8

103.6

115.4

Poland

124.6

111.4

116.4

116.5

126.5

100.0

75.2

71.9

73.6

75.7

82.6

96.2

115.2

140.1

..

Romania

163.7

161.5

163.3

161.0

157.6

100.0

64.4

44.0

48.9

52.9

63.9

68.3

72.2

70.1

57.4

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

74.8

71.5

68.5

64.7

64.6

90.3

103.3

114.7

Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

88.5

77.1

85.4

97.4

113.8

124.2

138.3

..

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

106.2

110.5

123.1

144.6

156.3

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

36.1

25.7

21.6

21.8

23.7

29.0

32.2

..

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

110.9

137.0

..

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

67.0

8.6

7.9

11.5

9.5

10.5

11.7

..

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

61.0

115.3

94.5

199.8

333.7

..

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

105.3

85.6

79.1

68.3

48.1

46.6

57.4

..

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

67.3

49.2

18.5

133.4

219.9

..

..

..

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

74.2

61.9

44.2

39.2

24.3

18.5

19.1

..

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

70.7

55.3

39.3

63.2

54.9

38.7

33.1

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

56.5

54.5

68.1

64.9

64.8

Russian Federation

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

84.5

49.4

36.7

27.1

25.1

20.9

19.9

18.5

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

81.6

69.3

48.2

28.4

19.7

15.2

14.2

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

APPENDIX TABLE B.4

Real gross industrial output in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

82.8

92.2

96.0

98.5

100.6

100.0

85.9

70.1

62.8

61.3

65.3

70.2

73.8

77.4

78.5

Albania

77.0

87.5

91.9

93.3

95.2

100.0

86.7

50.4

35.2

31.7

25.8

23.9

27.2

25.7

28.2

Bosnia and Herzegovina

106.0

104.1

104.1

101.1

98.1

100.0

101.8

76.9

25.5

2.0

1.7

2.8

5.2

7.0

8.7

Bulgaria

71.3

88.3

92.4

98.0

101.1

100.0

83.2

66.4

54.2

48.8

54.0

56.4

58.2

52.6

47.6

Croatia

88.7

95.1

99.4

102.0

100.6

100.0

88.7

63.4

54.2

51.0

49.6

49.7

51.3

54.8

56.8

Czech Republic

81.5

92.0

94.5

96.5

98.5

100.0

96.6

75.7

69.8

66.1

67.4

73.3

74.8

78.1

79.4

Hungary

92.9

102.1

104.0

106.4

105.3

100.0

90.7

74.1

66.9

69.6

76.3

79.8

82.5

91.7

103.2

Poland

86.3

88.5

92.3

95.5

100.5

100.0

75.8

69.7

71.7

76.3

85.5

93.8

101.6

113.3

118.6

Romania

76.9

90.5

96.8

99.2

101.9

100.0

81.9

63.3

49.4

50.1

51.7

56.6

60.1

55.8

46.3

Slovakia

76.7

91.6

95.2

98.6

100.8

100.0

94.0

73.1

66.1

62.5

66.8

72.3

74.1

75.3

79.1

Slovenia

90.3

101.0

102.7

101.6

98.9

100.0

89.5

78.4

68.1

66.1

70.4

71.8

72.5

73.2

75.9

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

72.1

88.6

95.0

97.3

95.6

100.0

89.4

74.0

62.3

53.7

48.0

42.9

44.3

45.0

47.0

Yugoslavia

80.0

93.6

96.8

97.6

98.4

100.0

88.0

72.5

57.0

35.7

36.2

37.6

40.4

44.2

45.8

Baltic states

72.1

84.8

88.9

92.7

96.6

100.0

98.6

95.1

64.7

44.4

36.3

37.1

38.9

42.2

44.0

Estonia

78.5

90.2

93.5

96.3

99.3

100.0

100.0

92.8

59.8

48.6

47.1

48.0

49.7

57.3

57.5

Latvia

72.5

86.6

89.9

93.7

97.1

100.0

100.8

100.2

65.6

44.6

40.1

38.7

40.8

46.4

47.3

Lithuania

70.0

82.6

87.2

91.2

95.6

100.0

97.4

94.0

65.8

43.2

31.7

33.4

35.0

36.2

38.7

CIS a

73.4

87.3

91.2

94.5

98.2

100.0

99.9

93.2

78.4

68.6

53.8

50.9

49.1

50.4

48.8

Armenia

76.3

100.7

105.3

110.3

109.1

100.0

92.5

85.4

44.2

39.7

41.8

42.4

43.0

43.4

42.3

Azerbaijan

76.1

94.5

92.7

96.1

99.3

100.0

93.7

98.2

74.9

69.7

53.9

44.6

41.6

41.7

42.7

Belarus

61.1

79.0

84.3

89.9

95.6

100.0

102.1

101.1

91.6

82.4

68.3

60.3

62.4

74.2

82.3

Georgia

70.6

91.8

93.9

96.2

99.3

100.0

94.3

73.0

39.6

25.0

15.2

13.2

14.1

15.2

14.8

Kazakhstan

72.4

85.8

90.2

94.1

97.6

100.0

99.2

98.3

84.7

72.2

51.9

47.7

47.8

49.7

48.7

Kyrgyzstan

66.7

84.2

87.8

89.0

95.1

100.0

99.4

99.1

72.9

54.5

39.2

32.2

35.1

52.8

55.2

Republic of Moldova b

68.7

85.1

87.3

91.6

94.6

100.0

103.2

91.7

66.9

67.1

48.5

46.6

43.6

43.6

38.8

Russian Federation

74.4

87.8

91.8

95.0

98.6

100.0

99.9

91.9

75.4

64.7

51.2

49.5

47.5

48.5

46.0

Tajikistan

72.9

87.1

88.7

93.1

98.2

100.0

101.2

97.6

73.9

68.1

50.8

43.9

33.4

32.7

35.4

Turkmenistan

75.4

86.0

90.1

92.9

96.9

100.0

103.2

108.2

92.0

95.7

72.1

67.5

80.8

54.7

54.8

Ukraine

72.6

86.4

90.0

93.4

97.3

100.0

99.9

95.1

89.0

81.9

59.5

52.4

49.7

49.6

48.8

Uzbekistan

68.5

86.0

91.2

93.4

96.5

100.0

101.8

103.3

96.4

99.9

101.5

101.6

104.2

108.5

114.8

Total above

76.5

88.9

92.8

95.8

99.0

100.0

95.2

85.5

72.8

65.6

57.2

57.0

57.2

59.3

58.7

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

85.4

92.8

95.8

98.3

100.7

100.0

87.0

73.1

69.6

70.3

76.0

82.2

86.3

93.5

98.2

SETE-7

78.6

91.4

96.3

98.8

100.6

100.0

84.1

65.4

52.0

47.0

48.3

51.1

54.0

51.9

47.1

Czechoslovakia

80.5

91.9

94.8

97.2

99.2

100.0

96.5

75.2

67.6

..

..

..

..

..

..

Yugoslavia (SFR) a

86.9

96.4

99.3

99.7

98.7

100.0

88.3

71.7

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Former Soviet Union

73.4

87.2

91.1

94.5

98.2

100.0

99.8

93.3

77.9

67.7

53.1

50.4

48.8

50.1

48.7

Former GDR

75.2

89.5

92.5

94.7

97.7

100.0

72.7

37.0

34.8

36.8

42.0

44.4

45.9

48.5

52.2

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics (IMF and World Bank data for Albania).

Note: Data for former Czechoslovakia and the SFR of Yugoslavia for 1980 to the breakup obtained as sum of individual country data for former members. For the countries of the former Soviet Union, data for 1980-1990 were chain-linked to national or CIS data from 1990. Country indices were aggregated with previous year PPP-based weights on the basis of data obtained from the European Comparison Programme for 1996.

a Generated from components.

b Excluding Transdniestria since 1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.5

Total employment in the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1985-1998
(Indices, 1989=100)

 

1980

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

94.7

96.6

97.4

98.0

97.9

100.0

97.0

90.7

85.0

82.3

82.3

81.9

82.5

82.7

..

Albania

77.9

90.1

93.1

95.9

97.6

100.0

99.2

97.5

76.0

72.7

80.7

79.0

77.5

76.9

76.6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

..

..

100.0

94.6

58.1

22.1

9.9

9.1

10.1

22.5

34.4

36.4

Bulgaria

100.0

102.2

102.5

102.8

102.4

100.0

93.9

81.6

75.0

73.8

74.3

75.2

75.3

72.3

71.2

Croatia

87.4

95.9

98.6

100.6

100.4

100.0

96.9

88.5

77.9

76.5

74.8

73.9

73.9

73.4

..

Czech Republic

95.3

97.5

98.5

98.9

99.4

100.0

99.1

93.6

91.2

89.7

90.4

92.8

93.4

92.4

90.2

Hungary a

104.2

102.6

102.6

101.7

100.7

100.0

96.7

86.8

77.0

72.1

70.6

69.3

69.0

69.1

70.3

Poland

102.0

100.8

101.1

100.8

100.1

100.0

95.8

90.1

86.3

84.3

85.1

86.7

88.3

90.8

91.1

Romania b

94.6

96.7

97.5

97.9

98.7

100.0

99.0

98.5

95.5

91.9

91.5

86.7

85.7

82.4

..

Slovakia a

91.3

96.8

98.4

99.4

100.2

100.0

98.2

85.9

80.4

80.4

78.9

80.7

81.3

81.5

81.2

Slovenia c

84.0

88.9

90.4

101.9

101.3

100.0

96.1

88.7

83.8

81.3

79.3

79.1

78.7

78.6

78.7

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

79.1

92.7

96.0

100.5

100.1

100.0

98.5

95.6

91.2

86.2

81.7

73.9

70.6

66.8

65.0

Yugoslavia

83.4

93.7

96.5

99.0

99.8

100.0

97.0

94.1

90.9

88.3

86.5

85.3

84.8

89.9

89.7

Baltic states d

94.9

98.0

98.8

99.4

99.6

100.0

98.5

98.9

94.4

89.0

83.2

80.6

80.1

80.9

65.1

Estonia

..

96.7

97.9

97.6

97.6

100.0

98.6

96.4

91.4

84.5

82.7

78.3

77.0

77.4

..

Latvia

97.0

99.1

99.8

100.4

100.5

100.0

100.1

99.3

92.0

85.6

77.0

74.3

72.3

73.7

74.1

Lithuania

93.4

97.7

98.5

99.5

99.8

100.0

97.3

99.7

97.5

93.4

88.0

86.4

87.2

87.7

87.0

CIS

94.3

97.8

98.3

98.9

99.3

100.0

100.2

98.9

96.5

94.1

91.3

90.4

89.6

88.3

..

Armenia

86.6

97.2

98.6

99.5

101.4

100.0

102.4

105.0

99.2

97.0

93.5

92.8

90.2

86.2

84.9

Azerbaijan

79.8

90.9

92.7

95.2

95.8

100.0

100.9

105.8

101.4

101.2

99.0

98.5

100.5

100.7

101.1

Belarus

95.4

98.4

98.8

99.0

99.5

100.0

99.1

96.6

94.1

92.9

90.4

84.8

84.0

84.1

84.5

Georgia

92.7

98.8

100.1

101.0

101.1

100.0

102.3

93.3

73.5

66.4

64.8

79.0

79.1

82.7

83.3

Kazakhstan

86.2

92.6

93.5

94.7

96.0

100.0

101.3

100.1

98.3

89.9

85.4

85.0

84.6

84.0

81.8

Kyrgyzstan

81.9

92.8

95.0

97.9

98.7

100.0

100.5

99.6

105.6

96.6

94.6

94.4

95.0

97.1

97.5

Republic of Moldova e

97.3

99.5

99.6

99.7

98.9

100.0

99.1

99.0

98.0

80.7

80.4

80.0

79.4

78.7

77.7

Russian Federation

96.9

99.1

99.5

99.7

99.9

100.0

99.6

97.7

95.3

93.7

90.6

87.9

87.2

85.5

84.1

Tajikistan

76.7

89.5

91.2

94.5

96.9

100.0

103.2

104.9

101.6

98.8

98.8

98.7

92.2

95.3

95.8

Turkmenistan

76.4

89.7

91.7

94.3

96.8

100.0

103.4

105.3

105.4

110.0

111.6

112.1

111.7

112.3

..

Ukraine

99.6

100.6

100.5

100.3

99.9

100.0

99.9

98.3

96.3

94.1

90.5

93.3

91.3

88.8

87.7

Uzbekistan

75.4

86.8

88.9

93.2

95.9

100.0

104.2

109.2

108.7

108.5

109.9

110.8

112.3

113.8

115.4

Total above

94.0

97.5

98.1

98.7

98.9

100.0

99.3

96.7

93.3

90.7

88.6

87.8

87.4

86.6

..

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

99.8

99.9

100.4

100.6

100.1

100.0

96.7

89.8

85.1

82.8

82.9

84.1

85.1

86.3

86.3

SETE-7

87.8

92.2

93.4

94.4

94.9

100.0

97.4

92.0

85.0

81.7

81.5

79.0

78.9

77.8

..

Former Soviet Union

93.7

97.8

98.3

98.9

99.3

100.0

100.2

98.9

96.4

94.0

91.1

90.1

89.3

88.1

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national and CIS statistics.

a End of year, up to 1992, since 1992 onwards annual average.

b End of year.

c Self-employed excluded until 1987.

d Excluding Estonia until 1985.

e Excluding Transdniestria since 1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.6

Registered unemployment in the ECE transition economies, 1990, 1994-1998
(Thousands and per cent of labour force, end of period)

 

Thousands

Per cent of labour force

 

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

2 773

7 190

6 583

6 300

6 196

..

..

13.6

12.5

11.7

11.9

12.6

Albania

150

262

171

158

194

235

9.5

18.0

12.9

12.3

14.9

17.6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

185

222

257

..

..

..

..

39*

38*

Bulgaria

72

488

424

478

524

465

1.8

12.8

11.1

12.5

13.7

12.2

Croatia

196

248

249

269

287

303

..

17.3

17.6

15.9

17.6

18.6

Czech Republic

39

167

153

186

269

387

0.7

3.2

2.9

3.5

5.2

7.5

Hungary

101

520

496

479

464

404

1.7

10.9

10.4

10.5

10.4

9.1

Poland

1 126

2 838

2 629

2 360

1 826

1 831

6.5

16.0

14.9

13.2

10.3

10.4

Romania

150

1 224

998

658

881

1025

1.3

10.9

9.5

6.6

8.8

10.3

Slovakia

40

372

330

330

348

427

1.6

14.8

13.1

12.8

12.5

15.6

Slovenia

55

124

127

125

129

127

..

14.2

14.5

14.4

14.8

14.6

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia a

156

196

229

245

258

..

..

33.2

37.2

39.8

42*

..

Yugoslavia a

688

751

777

827

794

849

..

23.9

24.7

26.1

25.6

27.2

Baltic states

..

197

245

237

236

269

..

5.3

6.6

6.4

6.3

7.3

Estonia b

..

35

34

37

31

35

..

5.1

5.0

5.6

4.6

5.1

Latvia

..

84

83

91

85

111

..

6.5

6.6

7.2

6.7

9.2

Lithuania

..

78

128

109

120

123

..

4.5

7.3

6.2

6.7

6.9

CIS

..

6 011

7 185

8 519

9 673

11 579

..

4.4

5.8

6.6

7.6

9.0

Armenia

..

92

132

159

174

134

..

6.0

8.1

9.7

11.0

8.9

Azerbaijan

..

24

28

32

38

42

..

0.9

1.1

1.1

1.3

1.4

Belarus

..

101

131

183

126

106

..

2.1

2.7

4

2.8

2.3

Georgia

..

76

61

58

143

99

..

3.8

3.4

3.2

8.0

4.2

Kazakhstan

..

70

140

282

259

252

..

1.0

2.1

4.1

3.9

3.7

Kyrgyzstan

..

13

50

77

55

56

..

0.8

3.0

4.5

3.1

3.1

Republic of Moldova

..

21

25

23

28

32

..

1.0

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.9

Russian Federation c

..

5 478

6 431

7280

8 133

9 728

..

7.5

8.9

10.0

11.2

13.3

Tajikistan

..

32

35

46

51

54

..

1.8

1.8

2.4

2.8

2.9

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Ukraine

..

82

127

351

637

1 003

..

0.3

0.6

1.5

2.8

4.3

Uzbekistan

..

22

25

28

29

33

..

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

Total above

..

13 398

14 013

15 056

16 105

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Memorandum items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CETE-5

1 361

4 021

3 735

3 480

3 036

3 176

..

12.9

12.0

11.2

9.8

10.2

SETE-7

1 412

3 169

2 848

2 635

2 936

..

..

14.6

13.7

12.5

14.3

15.4

Russian Federation d

..

1 637

2 327

2 506

1 999

1 929

..

2.1

3.2

3.4

2.8

2.7

Source: National statistics and direct communications from national statistical offices to UN/ECE secretariat.

a The data reported on employment cover only the social sector in agriculture, hence unemployment rates are biased upwards. In Yugoslavia, according to the labour force survey, the unemployment rate was 13.7 per cent in October 1998, instead of the officially reported rate of some 27 per cent. Also, in The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, according to the labour force survey, the unemployment rate was 34.5 per cent in April 1998 instead of reported estimates of some 40 per cent.

b Job seekers.

c Based on Russian Federation Goskomstat's monthly estimates according to the ILO definition, i.e. including all persons not having employment but actively seeking work.

d Registered unemployment.

APPENDIX TABLE B.7

Consumer prices in the ECE transition economies, 1989-1998
(Annual average, percentage change over preceding year)

 

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Albania

..

..

35.5

193.1

85.0

21.5

8.0

12.7

33.1

20.3

Bosnia and Herzegovina

36.8

594.0

116.2

64 218.3

38 825.1

553.5

-12.1

-21.2

11.8

4.9

Bulgaria

6.4

23.8

338.5

91.3

72.9

96.2

62.1

123.1

1 082.6

22.2

Croatia a

1 200.0

609.5

123.0

663.6

1 516.6

97.5

2.0

3.6

3.7

5.9

Czech Republic

1.4

9.9

56.7

11.1

20.8

10.0

9.1

8.9

8.4

10.6

Hungary

17.0

28.9

35.0

23.0

22.6

19.1

28.5

23.6

18.4

14.2

Poland

264.3

585.8

70.3

45.3

36.9

33.2

28.1

19.8

15.1

11.7

Romania

1.1

5.1

170.2

210.7

256.2

137.1

32.2

38.8

154.9

59.3

Slovakia

1.3

10.4

61.2

10.2

23.1

13.4

10.0

6.0

6.2

6.7

Slovenia

1 285.3

551.6

115.0

207.3

31.7

21.0

13.5

9.9

8.4

7.9

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia a

1 246.0

608.4

114.9

1 505.5

353.1

121.0

16.9

4.1

3.6

1.0

Yugoslavia

1 265.0

580.0

122.0

8 926.0

2.2E+14

7.9E+10

71.8

90.5

23.2

30.4

Estonia

4.0

18.0

202.0

1 078.2

89.6

47.9

28.9

23.1

11.1

10.6

Latvia

5.2

10.9

172.2

951.2

109.1

35.7

25.0

17.7

8.5

4.7

Lithuania

2.1

9.1

216.4

1 020.5

410.1

72.0

39.5

24.7

8.8

5.1

Armenia

0.8

6.9

174.1

728.7

3 731.8

4 964.0

175.5

18.7

13.8

8.7

Azerbaijan

0.5

6.1

106.6

912.6

1 129.7

1 663.9

411.5

19.8

3.6

-0.8

Belarus

1.7

5.5

98.6

971.2

1 190.9

2 219.6

709.3

52.7

63.9

73.2

Georgia

0.9

4.2

78.7

1 176.9

4 084.9

22 470.6

177.6

39.4

6.9

3.6

Kazakhstan

1.8

5.6

114.5

1 504.3

1 662.7

1 879.5

175.9

39.1

17.4

7.3

Kyrgyzstan

1.6

5.5

113.9

854.6

1 208.7

278.1

42.9

30.3

25.5

12.1

Republic of Moldova

1.1

5.7

114.4

1 308.0

1 751.0

486.4

29.9

23.5

11.8

7.7

Russian Federation

2.5

5.3

100.3

1 528.7

875.0

309.0

197.4

47.8

14.7

27.8

Tajikistan

1.7

5.9

112.9

822.0

2 884.8

350.3

682.1

422.4

85.4

43.1

Turkmenistan

2.5

5.7

88.5

483.2

3 128.4

2 562.1

1 105.3

714.0

83.7

16.8

Ukraine

2.0

5.4

94.0

1 209.6

4 734.9

891.2

376.7

80.2

15.9

10.6

Uzbekistan

0.7

5.8

97.3

414.5

1 231.8

1 550.0

315.5

56.3

73.2

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national statistics.

Note: From 1992 onwards indices derived from monthly data. Retail prices for Bulgaria and CIS countries for 1989.

a Retail prices.

APPENDIX TABLE B.9

Nominal gross wages in industry in the ECE transition economies, 1990-1998
(Annual average, percentage change over preceding year) a

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Albania b

..

..

..

69.5

34.5

29.3

..

..

..

Bosnia and Herzegovina c

..

..

..

..

..

..

249.4

50.8

31.1

Bulgaria

20.8

175.5

132.8

55.1

53.9

57.7

95.0

909.3

..

Croatia c

453.7

40.7

466.7

1 444.1

130.5

44.0

11.8

16.3

..

Czech Republic

3.0

16.5

21.0

22.6

16.9

18.3

17.7

12.0

10.8

Hungary b

27.2

33.4

24.3

24.9

21.4

21.0

21.7

21.8

16.6

Poland c

365.5

64.0

39.4

37.8

39.8

30.1

25.8

19.9

..

Romania c

9.7

125.0

173.5

210.7

139.4

55.3

56.7

99.5

53.1

Slovakia b

4.3

15.0

18.2

21.2

17.6

15.7

13.8

12.0

6.9

Slovenia

361.5

68.4

196.7

45.1

27.1

17.1

14.0

12.1

10.7

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia c

433.6

79.2

1 083.7

454.0

105.8

11.1

3.6

2.3

3.1

Yugoslavia c

400.0

100.6

4 886.4

-62.5

229.6

74.1

74.5

41.7

39.6

Estonia d

..

122.2

570.3

93.3

71.3

34.6

23.8

19.7

..

Latvia

..

104.5

599.1

111.7

62.7

24.1

14.9

21.6

6.5

Lithuania

15.2

183.9

632.5

231.6

59.3

48.8

34.9

24.2

..

Armenia

6.0

46.9

341.1

737.3

3 345.9

203.9

78.8

31.6

..

Azerbaijan

4.4

82.9

870.4

700.8

575.7

354.8

53.0

36.8

..

Belarus

13.4

113.3

910.9

1 073.8

69.6

618.7

58.5

96.8

112.1

Georgia

6.0

33.9

457.3

2 114.7

23 327.5

87.5

145.4

12.7

..

Kazakhstan

11.0

91.5

1 056.0

1 008.6

1 422.8

178.2

30.9

22.5

..

Kyrgyzstan

0.5

62.1

638.3

745.6

176.3

54.8

29.1

60.3

-1.4

Republic of Moldova

14.2

90.1

815.0

773.0

284.4

37.1

38.7

24.9

..

Russian Federation

13.0

94.9

1 065.7

798.2

260.2

131.4

64.3

21.6

23.9

Tajikistan

8.0

76.2

550.2

917.5

142.2

139.2

418.3

85.4

..

Turkmenistan

..

83.8

1 010.1

1 467.7

622.2

686.2

915.3

121.5

25.4

Ukraine

..

107.6

1 421.7

2 296.2

747.0

403.5

107.1

17.0

..

Uzbekistan

..

82.3

706.1

1 159.3

806.8

278.4

99.8

76.3

..

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national statistics.

a Calculated from reported annual average wages.

b Gross wages in total economy. For Hungary for 1990-1992; for Slovakia for 1990-1991.

c Net wages in industry. For Poland and Romania for 1990-1992.

d Manufacturing for 1991-1993.

APPENDIX TABLE B.10

Merchandise exports of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Billion dollars)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

56.367

60.117

63.550

65.020

63.850

61.733

57.241

59.333

62.675

72.937

94.777

100.206

107.382

119.269*

Albania

0.320

0.230

0.230

0.230

0.302

0.231

0.101

0.072

0.123

0.139

0.202

0.213

0.141

0.207

Bulgaria

7.160

7.599

7.841

7.554

6.651

5.232

3.433

3.992

3.769

3.935

5.345

4.890

4.939

4.293

Czechoslovakia

10.475

12.160

12.355

12.381

11.988

10.728

11.319

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.767

14.463

15.882

21.273

22.180

22.779

26.358

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.500

5.458

6.714

8.585

8.822

9.639

10.667

Hungary

8.609

9.170

9.584

9.999

9.673

9.731

10.226

10.681

8.921

10.701

12.867

15.704

19.106

23.005

Poland

13.071

13.130

14.095

14.573

14.665

18.291

14.912

13.187

14.202

17.240

22.887

24.440

25.756

28.229

Romania

9.217

8.159

8.580

8.971

8.076

4.570

4.266

4.363

4.892

6.151

7.910

8.085

8.431

8.300

Yugoslavia (SFR)

7.514

9.669

10.866

11.311

12.496

12.950

12.984

14.772

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

1.550

2.100

1.850

..

..

..

..

0.024

0.058

0.193

0.452

Croatia

..

..

..

2.300

2.600

4.020

3.310

4.353

3.709

4.260

4.633

4.512

4.171

4.541

Slovenia

1.836

2.567

2.757

3.278

3.408

4.118

3.874

6.681

6.083

6.828

8.316

8.310

8.369

9.050

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

..

..

..

..

0.654

1.113

1.095

1.199

1.055

1.086

1.204

1.147

1.180

1.310*

Yugoslavia

..

3.974

4.063

4.298

4.461

4.651

4.704

2.539

..

..

1.531

1.846

2.677

2.858

Baltic states

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2.139

4.197

4.324

5.844

6.877

8.461

8.738

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.444

0.802

1.305

1.838

2.079

2.929

3.214

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.843

1.401

0.988

1.304

1.443

1.672

1.812

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.852

1.994

2.031

2.705

3.355

3.860

3.712

CIS

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

51.110

52.516

62.654

80.007

87.839

89.177

75.146*

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.026

0.030

0.058

0.101

0.157

0.138

0.142

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.754

0.351

0.378

0.352

0.341

0.403

0.320

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.860

1.061

0.758

1.032

1.776

1.888

1.922

1.900

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.068

0.069

0.039

0.057

0.070

0.102

0.089

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.398

1.501

1.357

2.367

2.738

3.515

3.200

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.077

0.112

0.117

0.140

0.112

0.285

0.288

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.167

0.178

0.160

0.279

0.252

0.267

0.190

Russian Federation a

..

..

..

..

..

..

47.266

42.376

44.297

53.001

65.607

70.975

69.954

57.700

Tajikistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.108

0.227

0.399

0.497

0.439

0.473

0.394

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.908

1.049

0.494

0.951

0.551

0.300

0.202*

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.297

3.223

4.653

6.168

6.995

8.643

8.200

Uzbekistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.869

0.721

0.966

1.712

3.321

3.175

2.521*

Former Soviet Union

57.942

60.043

63.406

62.016

62.286

59.056

46.660

53.733

56.713

66.978

85.851

94.716

97.638

83.884*

Total

114.310

120.161

126.957

127.035

126.136

120.788

103.901

113.066

119.389

139.915

180.628

194.922

205.020

203.153*

Source: UN/ECE secretariat, based on national statistical publications and direct communications from national statistical offices.

Note: Data exclude intra-CIS trade, but now include the "new trade" among members of other recently dissolved federal states: former Czechoslovakia (from 1993), the former SFR of Yugoslavia (from 1992), and the trade of the Baltic states with the former USSR (from 1992). Data excluding the "new trade" were shown in earlier issues of this publication. Changes in the method of recording trade are reflected from 1993 in data for the Czech Republic (inclusion of OPT transactions, etc), from 1995 in Latvia (imports registered c.i.f.) and Lithuania (change from special to general system), from 1996 in Hungary (inclusion of trade flows of free trade zones) and from 1997 in Slovakia (inclusion of OPT transactions, etc.).

All trade values for the years 1991-1998 are expressed in dollars at prevailing market exchange rates. For earlier years, values reported in national currencies were adjusted by the UN/ECE secretariat to remove distortions stemming from mutually inconsistent national rouble/dollar cross-rates in the valuation of the then important intra-CMEA trade flows. For details on the revaluation, see the note to table 2.1.3 and the discussion in box 2.1.1 in UN/ECE, Economic Bulletin for Europe, Vol. 43 (1991).

a Data not adjusted for non-registered flows. Through 1997, GosTamkom data revised by the Russian Goskomstat and include off board sales of fish and other sea products as well as natural gas deliveries under debt repayment agreements with former CMEA countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.11

Merchandise imports of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Billion dollars)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

65.443

59.532

62.033

60.158

61.185

63.408

61.610

68.388

76.285

86.128

117.026

135.886

146.220

159.420*

Albania

0.320

0.230

0.230

0.280

0.385

0.381

0.409

0.524

0.421

0.549

0.650

0.913

0.620

0.795

Bulgaria

6.321

8.679

8.222

8.131

7.325

5.584

2.700

4.530

5.120

4.272

5.638

5.074

4.932

4.995

Czechoslovakia

10.619

10.277

12.503

12.180

11.772

11.808

10.962

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Czech Republic

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

10.368

14.617

17.427

25.265

27.919

27.563

28.822

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.889

6.332

6.634

8.777

11.112

11.672

12.959

Hungary

9.188

9.594

9.859

9.372

8.863

8.797

11.449

11.123

12.648

14.554

15.466

18.144

21.240

25.706

Poland

14.705

12.315

12.686

12.987

12.941

12.619

15.531

16.141

18.758

21.566

29.043

37.137

42.308

47.054

Romania

11.061

6.411

6.355

5.361

5.834

6.889

5.793

6.260

6.522

7.109

10.278

11.435

11.280

11.821

Yugoslavia (SFR)

13.229

12.026

12.178

11.847

14.064

17.330

14.765

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

1.300

1.850

1.750

..

..

..

..

0.524

1.204

1.555

2.025

Croatia

..

..

..

2.900

3.750

5.133

3.811

4.346

4.166

5.229

7.510

7.788

9.104

8.383

Slovenia

2.463

2.740

2.722

2.914

3.216

4.727

4.131

6.141

6.501

7.304

9.492

9.421

9.367

10.098

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

..

..

..

..

0.934

1.531

1.274

1.206

1.199

1.484

1.719

1.627

1.754

1.912*

Yugoslavia

..

4.753

4.851

4.915

5.383

6.701

5.548

3.859

..

..

2.665

4.113

4.826

4.849

Baltic states

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.802

4.101

5.251

8.006

10.110

12.812

13.744

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.406

0.896

1.659

2.540

3.231

4.444

4.759

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.794

0.961

1.240

1.818

2.320

2.724

3.189

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.602

2.244

2.352

3.649

4.559

5.644

5.796

CIS

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

42.203

33.354

36.745

45.680

49.670

57.977

50.259*

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.050

0.086

0.188

0.340

0.568

0.593

0.675

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.333

0.241

0.292

0.439

0.621

0.443

0.660

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.751

0.779

0.975

1.887

2.369

2.872

3.000

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.227

0.167

0.065

0.233

0.416

0.600

0.680

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.469

0.494

1.384

1.154

1.296

1.969

2.200

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.071

0.112

0.108

0.169

0.351

0.274

0.393

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.179

0.184

0.183

0.272

0.420

0.567

0.600

Russian Federation a

..

..

..

..

..

..

39.294

36.984

26.807

28.344

33.117

32.798

39.363

32.400

Tajikistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.132

0.374

0.314

0.332

0.286

0.268

0.265

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.030

0.501

0.782

0.619

0.924

0.531

0.471*

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2.049

2.651

2.908

5.488

6.427

7.242

6.600

Uzbekistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.929

0.958

1.202

1.630

3.195

3.255

2.315*

Former Soviet Union

52.218

55.016

53.794

58.044

64.983

64.963

45.405

44.166

37.455

41.997

53.686

59.780

70.788

64.003*

Total

117.661

114.548

115.827

118.202

126.168

128.371

106.901

112.554

113.740

128.124

170.712

195.667

217.008

223.422*

Source: UN/ECE secretariat, based on national statistical publications and direct communications from national statistical offices.

Note: See appendix table B.10.

a Data not adjusted for non-registered flows. Through 1997, GosTamkom data revised by the Russian Goskomstat and include off board sales of fish and other sea products as well as natural gas deliveries under debt repayment agreements with former CMEA countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.12

Balance of merchandise trade of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Billion dollars)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe

-9.076

0.585

1.517

4.861

2.665

-1.675

-4.369

-9.055

-13.610

-13.190

-22.250

-35.681

-38.838

-40.151*

Albania

-

-

-

-0.050

-0.083

-0.150

-0.308

-0.452

-0.298

-0.410

-0.448

-0.701

-0.479

-0.589

Bulgaria

0.839

-1.080

-0.381

-0.577

-0.674

-0.352

0.732

-0.538

-1.352

-0.336

-0.293

-0.184

0.007

-0.702

Czechoslovakia

-0.144

1.882

-0.147

0.201

0.216

-1.080

0.356

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Czech Republic

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-1.601

-0.154

-1.545

-3.992

-5.739

-4.784

-2.464

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.389

-0.874

0.080

-0.192

-2.290

-2.033

-2.292

Hungary

-0.579

-0.423

-0.276

0.627

0.810

0.934

-1.223

-0.442

-3.727

-3.853

-2.599

-2.440

-2.134

-2.701

Poland

-1.634

0.815

1.409

1.586

1.724

5.672

-0.619

-2.955

-4.555

-4.326

-6.156

-12.697

-16.551

-18.825

Romania

-1.844

1.748

2.225

3.610

2.242

-2.320

-1.528

-1.897

-1.630

-0.958

-2.368

-3.351

-2.849

-3.521

Yugoslavia (SFR)

-5.715

-2.357

-1.312

-0.536

-1.568

-4.380

-1.780

14.772

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

0.250

0.250

0.100

..

..

..

..

-0.500

-1.146

-1.362

-1.574

Croatia

..

..

..

-0.600

-1.150

-1.113

-0.501

0.007

-0.457

-0.969

-2.877

-3.276

-4.933

-3.842

Slovenia

-0.626

-0.173

0.035

0.365

0.192

-0.609

-0.257

0.540

-0.418

-0.476

-1.176

-1.111

-0.998

-1.048

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

..

..

..

..

-0.280

-0.418

-0.179

-0.007

-0.144

-0.398

-0.515

-0.480

-0.574

-0.602*

Yugoslavia

..

-0.779

-0.788

-0.617

-0.922

-2.050

-0.844

-1.320

..

..

-1.134

-2.267

-2.149

-1.991

Baltic states

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.337

0.096

-0.927

-2.162

-3.232

-4.350

-5.006

Estonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.038

-0.094

-0.353

-0.702

-1.152

-1.515

-1.545

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.049

0.440

-0.252

-0.514

-0.877

-1.052

-1.377

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.250

-0.250

-0.322

-0.944

-1.204

-1.784

-2.084

CIS

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.907

19.163

25.909

34.328

38.168

31.200

24.887*

Armenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.024

-0.056

-0.130

-0.239

-0.411

-0.456

-0.533

Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.422

0.110

0.086

-0.087

-0.280

-0.040

-0.340

Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.860

0.310

-0.021

0.057

-0.111

-0.481

-0.950

-1.100

Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.159

-0.098

-0.026

-0.176

-0.346

-0.498

-0.591

Kazakhstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.930

1.007

-0.027

1.213

1.442

1.547

1.000

Kyrgyzstan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.006

-

0.009

-0.029

-0.239

0.011

-0.105

Republic of Moldova

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.012

-0.006

-0.023

0.007

-0.168

-0.300

-0.410

Russian Federation a

..

..

..

..

..

..

7.972

5.392

17.491

24.657

32.490

38.177

30.591

25.300

Tajikistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.024

-0.147

0.086

0.165

0.154

0.205

0.129

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.879

0.548

-0.288

0.332

-0.374

-0.231

-0.269*

Ukraine

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.248

0.572

1.745

0.680

0.568

1.401

1.600

Uzbekistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-0.060

-0.237

-0.236

0.082

0.126

-0.080

0.206*

Former Soviet Union

5.724

5.027

9.612

3.972

-2.697

-5.907

1.255

9.567

19.259

24.982

32.165

34.936

26.850

19.881*

Total

-3.351

5.613

11.130

8.833

-0.032

-7.583

-3.000

0.512

5.649

11.791

9.916

-0.745

-11.988

-20.269*

Source: UN/ECE secretariat, based on national statistical publications and direct communications from national statistical offices.

Note: See appendix table B.10.

a Data not adjusted for non-registered flows. Through 1997, GosTamkom data revised by the Russian Goskomstat and include off board sales of fish and other sea products as well as natural gas deliveries under debt repayment agreements with former CMEA countries.

APPENDIX TABLE B.13

Merchandise trade of the ECE transition economies by direction, 1980, 1986-1998
(Shares in total trade, per cent)

 

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe, to and from:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

ECE transition economies

48.5

52.5

50.2

46.5

44.4

38.1

28.5

23.0

28.2

26.3

25.8

26.1

26.1

22.5

Former Soviet Union

27.1

31.0

29.7

27.2

25.5

22.3

17.9

12.4

9.8

9.0

8.9

9.4

10.3

7.5

Eastern Europe

21.4

21.5

20.5

19.3

18.9

15.8

10.7

10.7

18.5

17.4

16.9

16.7

15.8

15.0

Developed market economies

35.7

32.3

35.2

38.7

42.6

49.5

59.8

63.0

58.0

62.5

64.5

65.0

66.4

71.5

Developing economies

15.8

15.2

14.6

14.8

13.0

12.4

11.7

14.0

13.8

11.2

9.7

8.9

7.5

6.0

Imports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

ECE transition economies

42.0

50.3

45.6

40.5

36.4

26.6

25.5

24.7

29.3

26.1

25.3

23.8

22.1

19.3

Former Soviet Union

26.8

34.5

30.7

26.3

23.5

18.3

20.2

17.9

16.5

14.1

13.2

12.7

11.2

8.6

Eastern Europe

18.8

21.2

20.5

19.6

18.7

14.3

8.1

6.8

12.8

12.0

12.1

11.1

10.9

10.7

Developed market economies

38.7

32.3

36.1

41.1

44.0

53.3

58.3

64.4

61.5

65.0

65.8

66.6

68.1

70.8

Developing economies

19.3

17.4

18.3

18.4

19.5

20.1

16.1

10.9

9.2

9.0

8.9

9.6

9.8

9.9

Former Soviet Union/Russian Federation, to and from:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

ECE transition economies

34.5

38.5

33.5

29.4

26.6

21.8

25.9

22.3

18.1

15.1

16.8

18.2

19.5

18.1

Eastern Europe

34.5

38.5

33.5

29.4

26.6

21.8

25.9

20.7

16.8

11.7

13.2

14.3

14.9

14.2

Developed market economies

42.2

31.0

35.3

38.9

41.8

49.5

56.5

57.9

59.7

66.6

60.6

58.1

58.6

60.0

Developing economies

23.3

30.5

31.2

31.7

31.6

28.7

17.6

19.9

22.2

18.3

22.6

23.8

21.9

21.9

Imports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

ECE transition economies

31.5

38.6

38.2

32.4

27.6

24.7

26.0

15.9

10.6

14.1

15.5

12.6

13.7

11.9

Eastern Europe

31.5

38.6

38.2

32.4

27.6

24.7

26.0

15.0

10.0

11.7

12.4

10.6

11.1

9.8

Developed market economies

46.4

40.9

40.7

46.3

50.1

52.9

58.1

62.4

60.6

70.3

69.5

67.8

68.2

68.1

Developing economies

22.1

20.5

21.1

21.3

22.3

22.4

15.9

21.7

28.8

15.6

15.0

19.6

18.1

19.9

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national statistics.

Note: Data for 1980-1990 refer to the east European CMEA countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania) and to the former Soviet Union. Trade data in national currencies were revalued at consistent rouble/dollar cross-rates (see the note to appendix table B.10). For 1991-1997, eastern Europe covers Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia (from 1993, Czech Republic and Slovakia including their mutual trade), Hungary, Poland and Romania, and the second panel reflects non-CIS trade of the Russian Federation only.

Partner-country grouping has been recently revised with subsequent revisions back to 1980. Thus, the earlier reported "Transition economies" group is now replaced by "ECE transition economies", which covers the Baltic states, CIS and the east European countries including the successor states of the former SFR of Yugoslavia. The "Eastern Europe" partner-group now covers Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and the successor states of the former SFR of Yugoslavia, which earlier were in the "Other socialist countries" subgroup. The rest of subgroup "Other socialist countries", which in previous series covered China, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia and Viet Nam, is now included in the "Developing countries" group.

APPENDIX TABLE B.14

Exchange rates of the ECE transition economies, 1980, 1986-1998
(Annual averages, national currency units per dollar)

 

Unit a

1980

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Albania

lek

..

..

..

..

..

8.90

24.20

75.03

102.06

94.62

93.14

104.33

148.93

150.63

Bulgaria

lev

0.86

0.94

0.87

0.83

0.84

0.79

17.45

23.42

27.85

54.13

67.08

177.88

1 681.87

1 760.37

Czechoslovakia

koruna

5.37

16.20

14.79

14.37

15.06

18.56

29.56

28.30

..

..

..

..

..

..

Czech Republic

koruna

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

29.15

28.79

26.54

27.14

31.70

32.29

Slovakia

koruna

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

30.80

31.93

29.71

30.68

33.62

35.15

Hungary

forint

32.64

45.83

46.97

50.41

59.07

63.21

74.73

78.98

91.91

105.11

125.69

152.65

186.79

214.40

Poland

zloty b

3.05

175.28

265.08

430.64

1 439

9 500

10 576

13 627

18 136

22 723

2.42

2.70

3.28

3.49

Romania

leu

4.47

16.80

16.00

16.00

16.00

22.43

71.84

307.98

760.12

1 654

2 033

3 085

7 183

8 876

Yugoslavia (SFR)

dinar c

24.64

379.22

737.00

25 239

28 760

11.32

19.64

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bosnia and Herzegovina

dinar

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Croatia

kuna d

..

..

..

..

..

..

18.80

264.30

3 577.63

6.00

5.23

5.43

6.10

6.36

Slovenia

tolar

..

..

..

..

..

..

27.57

81.29

113.24

128.81

118.52

135.37

159.69

166.13

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

denar e

..

..

..

..

..

..

19.69

508.07

23.26

43.25

38.05

39.92

50.40

54.48

Yugoslavia

dinar f

..

..

..

..

..

..

19.64

508.07

..

..

4.74

4.96

5.72

5.99

Estonia

kroon g

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

12.11

13.22

12.98

11.46

12.03

13.88

14.08

Latvia

lats h

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.67

0.56

0.53

0.55

0.58

0.59

Lithuania

litas i

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

4.37

3.98

4.00

4.00

4.00

4.00

Armenia

dram

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.66

288.35

405.93

413.47

490.70

504.86

Azerbaijan

manat

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1 169

4 417

4 295

3 987

3 869

Belarus

rouble j

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2177

4 017

11 538

13 472

26 729

48 650

Georgia

lari k

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.10

1.29

1.26

1.30

1.39

Kazakhstan

tenge

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

35.54

60.95

67.30

75.43

78.26

Kyrgyzstan

som

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

10.86

10.83

12.81

17.37

21.37

Republic of Moldova

leu

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

4.07

4.50

4.60

4.62

5.36

Russian Federation

rouble l

0.65

0.70

0.63

0.61

0.63

0.59

1.74

192.75

927.46

2204

4 559

5 121

5 785

9.71

Tajikistan

rouble

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

107.59

292.89

560.64

778.30

Turkmenistan

manat

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

19.50

110.42

3 509

4 143

4 941

Ukraine

hryvnia m

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

4 796

31 700

147 314

1.83

1.86

2.51

Uzbekistan

sum n

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

932.15

9.96

29.81

40.15

66.43

94.79

Memorandum item:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Former GDR

mark o

3.30

8.14

8.14

8.14

8.14

8.14

1.66

1.56

1.65

1.62

1.43

1.50

1.73

1.76

Source: UN/ECE Common Database, derived from national, IMF and CIS statistics. Annual averages are unweighted arithmetic averages of monthly values. Change or redenomination of currency is indicated by a vertical bar.

Note: Under the central planning system with its state foreign trade monopoly, exchange rates served primarily statistical and accounting purposes (notably the conversion of foreign trade values for statistics expressed in domestic currency), without direct impact on domestic price formation. Market-based exchange rates and a meaningful link to domestic currency values emerged only with the transformations from 1989 onward. The official exchange rates of the earlier period are therefore not suitable for the conversion to dollars of macroeconomic and other data of these countries expressed in domestic currency. These strictures should be kept in mind in the interpretation and use of the data for the 1980s shown above.

a Currency unit of the last period shown. For prior periods, see footnotes.

b The zloty was redenominated at 1:10,000 from 1 January 1995.

c The dinar was redenominated at 1:10,000 from 1 January 1990.

d The kuna replaced the Croat dinar on 3 May 1994 at 1:1,000; the 1994 average is shown in kuna terms.

e The denar (which had replaced the Yugoslav dinar 1:1 on 26 April 1992) was redenominated 1:100 on 1 May 1993; the 1993 average is shown in terms of that unit.

f The dinar was further redenominated on 1 July 1992 (1:10), 1 October 1993 (1:1 million), 1 January 1994 (1:1 trillion) and 24 January 1994 (1:13 million). Average annual exchange rates not available for 1993-1994.

g The kroon replaced the Soviet rouble in June 1992 with a peg to the deutsche mark (8:1); the average shown for 1992 refers to June-December.

h The lats replaced an earlier Latvian rouble at 1:200 on 18 October 1993; the 1993 average is shown in lat terms.

i The litas replaced the earlier talonas at 1:100 on 1 June 1993; the 1993 average is shown in litas terms.

j The Belarus rouble was redenominated 1:10 on 10 August 1994; the 1994 average here assumes this applied to the entire year. Annual averages were calculated from end-of-period monthly rates.

k The lari replaced the lari-kupon on 25 September 1995; the annual average for 1994 is shown in million lari-kupon, and that for 1995 in lari.

l 1980-1991: Soviet rouble/dollar rate used in the conversion of foreign trade data for statistical purposes. The rouble was redenominated at 1:1,000 from 1 January 1998.

m The hryvnia replaced the former karbovanets on 2 September 1996 at 1:100,000; the average for 1996 is shown in hryvnia terms.

n Sum-kupon in 1993.

o German Democratic Republic mark through 1990, deutsche mark thereafter.

APPENDIX TABLE B.15

Current account balances of the ECE transition economies, 1990-1998
(Million dollars)

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Eastern Europe a

-3 914

-2 502

-862

-7 338

-4 197

-1 090

-13 189

-14 703

-17 557

Albania

-118

-168

-51

15

-43

-15

-107

-271

-187

Bosnia and Herzegovina b

..

..

..

..

-492

-570

-1 306

-1 468

-1 580*

Bulgaria

-1 710

-77

-360

-1 098

-25

-26

16

427

-252

Croatia c d

-500

-589

329

600

786

-1 284

-858

-2 434

-1 554

Czech Republic

-122

1 709

-456

456

-787

-1 369

-4 292

-3 211

-1 046

Hungary e

127

267

324

-3 455

-3 911

-2 480

-1 678

-981

-2 298

Poland e f

716

-1 359

-269

-2 329

-944

5 455

-1 352

-4 312

-6 858

Romania e

-1 650

-1 369

-1 460

-1 174

-428

-1 774

-2 571

-2 338

-3 010

Slovakia

-767

-786

173

-559

712

646

-2 098

-1 343

-2 059

Slovenia c

518

129

926

192

600

-23

39

37

-4

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia c

-409

-259

-19

15

-158

-222

-288

-276

-289

Yugoslavia

..

..

..

..

..

..

-817

-1 317g

-1 200*g

Baltic states

..

..

681

371

-71

-816

-1 425

-1 889

-2 458

Estonia

..

..

153

40

-178

-185

-423

-563

-447

Latvia

..